These are referred to in information that I have posted, or are related to my research interests, or.... The presence of this page helps ensure that I credit the sources that I consult in developing the information on the Intermountain Herbarium's Web site. Each reference is labeled with a bookmark that consists of the author's name (concatenated last names if two authors, first author's last name plus "etal" if three or more authors) concatenated with the date of publication, e.g., Arnow1987, AsayDewey1979, Atkinsetal1984. I am starting to add keywords, but these may be partly of my choosing. [M.E. Barkworth]


Ainouche, M.L. and R.J. Bayer. 1997. On the origins of the tetraploid Bromus species (Section Bromus, Poaceae): Insights from internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Genome 40:730-743.

Allen, L.S. and M. Curto. 1995. Nearly noteworthy collections. Sego Lily 18(3) [May/June, no pagination].

Alston, R.E. and B.L. Turner. 1963. Biochemical Systematics. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. [A classic now, but useful for unchanging information].

Amme, D. and S.W. Edwards. 1988. Needlegrass notes. Four Seasons 8:28-34.

Aris-Brosou, S. 2004. Least and most productive phylogenetic tests to elucidate the origin of the seed plants in the presence of conflicting signals under misspecified models. Systematic Biology 52:781-793. [Ginkgo always with gymnosperms].

Arnow, L. 1987. Gramineae. Pp. 684-788 in Welsh et al., A Utah Flora.

Arnow, L. 1993. Gramineae. Pp. 775-832 in Welsh et al., A Utah Flora, ed. 2.

Asay, K.H. and D.R. Dewey. 1979. Bridging ploidy differences in crested wheatgrass with hexaploid diploid hybrids. Crop Science 19:519-523.

Asay, K.H., K.B. Jensen, C. Hsiao, and D.R. Dewey. 1992. Probable origin of standard crested wheatgrass, Agropyron desertorum Fisch. ex Link, Schultes. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 72:763-772.

Asay, K.H. and D.A. Johnson. 1997. Genotype × competition level interactions in crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum (Poaceae: Triticeae). International Journal of Plant Science 158:851-855.

Assadi, M.1995. Meiotic configuration and chromosome number in some Iranian species of Elymus L. and Agropyron Gaertner (Poaceae: Triticeae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 117:159-168.

Assadi, M. and H. Runemark. 1995. Hybridization, genomic constitution and generic delimitation in Elymus s.l. (Poaceae, Triticeae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 194:189-205.

Atkins, R.J., M.E. Barkworth, and D.R. Dewey. 1984. A taxonomic study of Leymus ambiguus and L. salinus (Poaceae: Triticeae). Systematic Botany 9:279-294.

Avdulov, N.P. 1931. Karyo-systematische Untersuchung der Familie Gramineen. Trudy po Prikladnoi Botanike, Genetike i Selektsii [Bulletin of Applied Botany, Genetics and Plant Breeding], Suppl. 43 [cited in Myers 1947].


Baden, C. 1991. A taxonomic revision of Psathyrostachys (Poaceae). Nordic Journal of Botany. 11:3-26.

Baden, C. and R. von Bothmer. 1994. A taxonomic revision of Hordeum sect. Critesion. Nordic Journal of Botany14:117-136.

Baden, C., I. Linde-Laursen, and D.R. Dewey. 1990. A new Chinese species of Psathyrostachys (Poaceae) with notes on its karyotype. Nordic Journal of Botany. 9:449-460.

Barkworth, M.E. 1983. Ptilagrostis Griseb. in North America and its relationship to other taxa in the Stipeae (Gramineae). Systematic Botany 8:395-415.

Barkworth, M.E. 1990. Nassella (Gramineae, Stipeae): Revised interpretation and nomenclatural changes. Taxon 39:597-614.

Barkworth, M.E. 1993. North American Stipeae (Gramineae): Taxonomic changes and other comments. Phytologia 74:1-25.

Barkworth, M.E. and R.J. Atkins. 1984. Leymus Hochst. (Gramineae: Triticeae) in North America: Taxonomy and distribution. American Journal of Botany 71:609-625.

Barkworth, M.E., R.L. Burkhamer, and L.E. Talbert. 1996. Elymus calderi: A new species in the Triticeae (Poaceae). Systematic Botany 21:349-354.

Barkworth, M.E. and J.N.N. Campbell. [in prep.]. Elymus. Pp. ?-? in Barkworth et al., Manual of North American Grasses.

Barkworth, M.E. and K.M. Capels. 2000. The Poaceae in North America: A geographic perspective. Pp. 327-346 in S.W.L. Jacobs and J. Everett (eds). Grasses: Systematics and Evolution. International Symposium on Grass Systematics and Evolution (3rd:1998). CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria, Australia.

Barkworth, M.E., K.M. Capels, M.B. Piep, and S. Long (eds.). [in prep.]. Manual of North American Grasses.

Barkworth, M.E. and S.W. Clyde. 1996a. Collaborative development of a Virtual Herbarium. Northwest Science.

Barkworth, M.E. and S.W. Clyde. 1996b. A Virtual Herbarium: What purpose would one serve and how should it be developed? American Journal of Botany 83:142. [Abstract].

Barkworth, M.E. and D.R. Dewey. 1985. Genomically based genera in the perennial Triticeae of North America: Identification and membership. American Journal of Botany 72:767-776.

Baum, B.R. 1979. The genus Elymus in Canada--Bowden's generic concept and key reappraised and relectotypification of E. canadensis. Canadian Journal of Botany 42:547-601.

Baum, B.R. and L.G. Bailey. 1997. The molecular diversity of the 5S sRNA gene in Kengyilia alatavica (Drobov) J.L. Yang, Yen, & Baum (Poaceae: Triticeae): Potential genomic assignment of rDNA units. Genome 40:215-228.

Baum, B.R., J.-L. Yang, and C. Yen. 1995. Taxonomic separation of Kengyilia (Poaceae: Triticeae) in relation to nearest related Roegneria, Elymus, and Agropyron, based on some morphological characters. Plant Systematics and Evolution 194:123-132.

Baum, B.R., C. Yen, and J.-L. Yang. 1991. Roegneria: Its generic limits and justification for its recognition. Canadian Journal of Botany 69:282-294.

Bayon, N.D. 1998. Cladistic anlaysis of the Briza complex. Cladistics 14:287-296.

Bentham, G. 1882. Notes on Gramineae. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 18:14-134.

Beristain, O.O., A. Valiente-Banuet, P. Dávila and R. Medina. 1996. Tipos de vegetacion y diversidad beta en el valle de Zapotitlan de las Salinas, Puebal, México. Boletín de la Sociedad Botánica de México 59:35-58. Keywords: Biodiversity, Synecology, Mexico.

Besse, P., C.L. McIntyre, D.M. Burner, and C.G. de Almeida. 1997. Using genomic slot blot hybridization to assess intergeneric Saccharum × Erianthus hybrids (Andropogoneae - Saccharinae). Genome 40:428-432.

Bittner, R.T. and D.J. Gibson. 1998. Microhabitat relations of the rare reed bent grass, Calamagrostis porteri subsp. insperata (Poaceae), with implications for its conservation. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 85-69-80.

Bohling, N. and H. Scholz. 2003. The Gramineae (Poaceae) Flora of the Southern Aegean Islands (Greece). Bericht der Institut für Landschafts- und Pflanzenökologie, Universität Hohenheim, Beiheft 16.

Borre, A. van den and L. Watson. 1997. On the classification of the Chloridoideae (Poaceae). Australian Systematic Botany 10:491-531. Keywords: Chloridoideae, Eragrostideae, Chlorideae, Cladistics, Phenetics, Morphology, DELTA, Pappophoreae, Orcuttieae, Triodieae.

Borrill, M. 1955. Breeding systems and compatibility in Glyceria. Nature 175:561-563.

Bothmer, R. von. 1979. Revision of the Asiatic taxa of Hordeum sect. Stenostachys. Botanisk Tidsskrift 74:117-147.

Bothmer, R. von. 1996. Distribution and habitat preferences in the genus Hordeum in Iran and Turkey. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 98b (Suppl.):107-116.

Bothmer, R. von, N. Jacobsen, R.B. Jørgensen, and I. Linde-Laursen. 1991. An Ecogeographical Study of the Genus Hordeum. Systematic and Ecogeographic Studies on Crop Genepools 7. International Board for Crop Genetic Resources, Rome, Italy.

Bothmer, R. von, B.-R. Lu, and I. Linde-Laursen. 1994. Intergeneric hybridization and C-banding patterns in Hordelymus (Triticeae, Poaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 189:259-266.

Bowden, W.M. 1960. Chromosome numbers and taxonomic notes on northern grasses II. Tribe Festuceae. Canadian Journal of Botany 38:117-131.

Bowden, W.M. 1960. Chromosome numbers and taxonomic note on northern grasses. III. Twenty-five genera. Canadian Journal of Botany 38:541-557.

Bowden, W.M. and H.A. Senn. 1962. Chromosome numbers in 28 grass genera from South America. Canadian Journal of Botany 40:1115-1124.

Boyle, W.S. 1945. A cytotaxonomic study of the North American species of Melica. Madroño 8:1-26.

Bridson, G.D.R. and E.R. Smith (eds.). 1991. Botanico-Periodicum-Huntianum/Supplementum. Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Brummitt, R.K. and C.E. Powell. 1992. Authors of Plant Names. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England.


Cai, K.-B. and Z.-L. Wu. 1997. Studies on the biosystematic relationships and geographic distribution of Trikeraia Bor and Stephanachne Keng. Bulletin of Botanical Research 17:380-388. In Chinese. Keywords: Stipeae, Trikeraia, Stephanachne, Phytogeography, Relationships. [The abstract, which is in English, states that, within the Stipeae, Stephanachne and Trikeraia are most closely related, with Stephanachne being more advanced. Both appear to have evolved in Xizang. It appears to be based on morphological data but, not being able to read Chinese, that is all I know].

Cai, L.-B. 2001a. A new species and a new variety of Leymus Hochst. (Poaceae) from Qinghai, China. Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 39(1):75-77.

Cai, L.-B. 2001b. Geographical distribution of Kengyilia Yen & J.L. Yang (Poaceae). Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 39(3):248-259.

Camara-Hernadez, J. and S. Gambino. 1997. Morphology, origin, and evolution of Coix lacryma-jobi L. (Poaceae). Beiträge zur Biologie der Pflanzen 70:53-78.

Campbell, J.J.N. 1995. New combinations in eastern North American Elymus (Poaceae). Novon 5:128.

Caro, J.A. 1966. Las especies de Stipa (Gramineae) de la region central Argentina. Kurtziana 3:7-119.

Caro, J.A. and E. Sanchez. 1971. La identidad de Stipa brachychaeta Godron, S. caudata Trinius y S. bertrandii Philippi. Darwinia 16(3-4):637-653.

Caro, J.A. and E. Sanchez. 1973. Las especies de Stipa (Gramineae) del subgénero Jarava. Kurtziana 7:61-116.

Catalan, P., E.A. Kellogg, and R.G. Olmstead. 1997. Phylogeny of Poaceae subfamily Pooideae based on chloroplast ndhF gene sequences. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 8:150-166. Keywords: Pooideae, DNA.

Cauderon, Y. 1966. Genome analysis in the genus Agropyron. Proceedings of the Second International Wheat Genetics Symposium, Lund, Sweden 1963. Hereditas, Suppl. Vol. 2:218-234.

Cerling, T.E., J.M. Harris, B.J. McFadden, M.G. Leakey, J. Quade, V. Eisenmann, and J.R. Ehleringer. 1997. Global vegetation change throught the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Nature 389:153-158.

Charmet, G., C. Ravel, and F. Balfourier. 1997. Phylogenetic analysis in the Festuca-Lolium complex using molecular markers and ITS rDNA. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 94:1038-1046. ["The genus Festuca appears to be a highly polyphyletic clade, considering the high level of divergence between fine-leaved and broad-leaved groups. The genera Vulpia and Dactylis seem to be included in the genus Festuca, although the node is less certain for Dactylis....Within the subgenus Schedonorus, tall fescue and meadow fescue are closely related to each other and to the Lolium species....It should be particularly stressed that the genus Lolium is of very recent origin, and its interior nodes are consequently not resolved with certainty. A practical consequence of this is that the genus Lolium should be regarded as a single entity as far as its use as a genetic resource for the breeding programmes of cultivated species is concerned." It is hard to see how this paper can be interpreted as providing support for the treatment of Schedonorus and Lolium as separate genera].

Charters, Y.M., A. Robertson, and M.J. Wilkinson. 1996. PCR analysis of oilseed rape cultivars (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera) using 5'-anchored simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 92:442-447.

Chrtek, J. and E. Hadac. 1969. A contribution to the grass flora of Iraq. Candollea 24:159-181.

Cialdella, A.M. and M. Arriaga. 1998. Revisión de las especies Sudamericanas del género Piptochaetium (Poaceae, Poodieae, Stipeae). Darwinia 36:107-157.

Clayton, W.D. and S.A. Renvoize. 1986. Genera Graminum: Grasses of the World. Kew Bulletin Additional Series XIII. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.

Clyde, S.W. and M.E. Barkworth. 1996. The software behind the Virtual Herbarium. American Journal of Botany, 83:147-148. [Abstract].

Cody, W.J. 1996. Flora of the Yukon Territory. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Canada.

Columbus, J.T., M.S. Kinney, R. Pant, and M. E.S. Delgado. 1998. Cladistic parsimony analysis of internal transcribed spacer region (nrDNA) sequences of Bouteloua and relatives (Gramineae: Chloridoideae). Aliso 17(2):99-130. Keywords: DNA, Poaceae, Chloridoideae, Bouteloua, Artificial taxonomy. [The article claims that the results show that there has been extensive homoplasy in morphological, anatomical, and breeding systems traits. This is based on the assumption that cladistic analysis of one bit of DNA gives an accurate protrayal of the the phylogeny of the species involved. Classifications based on a single character, no matter how the data for that character are analysed, are artificial. It may be true that the more traditional characters exhibit extensive homoplasy, but this paper should only be regarded as a single indication that they may do so, not developing a strong case for such a conclusion].

Connor, H.E. 1994. Indigenous New Zealand Triticeae: Gramineae. New Zealand Journal of Botany 32:125-154.

Connor, H.E., B.P. Molloy, and M.I. Dawson. 1993. Australopyrum (Triticeae: Gramineae) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 31:1-10.

Cronberg, N., B. Widen, and R. von Bothmer. 1997. Genetic diversity and phenotypic variation in marginal populations of the locally endangered specis Hordeum secalinum (Poaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 206:285-294.

Cronquist, A. 1981. An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. Columbia University Press, New York. [An excellent reference for information about plant families, as interpreted in the early part of the twentieth century. The illustrations, which are excellent, are explicitly released from copyright].

Cronquist, A., N.H. Holmgren, and P.K. Holmgren. 1997. Intermountain Flora: Subclass Rosidae except Fabales, vol. 3, part 3a. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

Cuadrado, A. and N. Jouve. 1997. Distribution of highly repeated DNA sequences in species of the genus Secale. Genome 40:309-317.

Curto, M. 1998. A new Stipa (Poaceae: Stipeae) from Idaho and Nevada. Madroño 45:57-63


Dávila Aranda, P.A., R. Lira Garcia, and J. Sánchez Ken. 1998. La familia Gramineae en el estado de Jalisco, Mexico. Boletín del Instituto de Botánica [IBUG (Instituto de Botánica, Universidad de Guadalajara) Boletín Informativo] 5:191-215. Keywords: Poaceae, Mexico, Jalisco.

Dengler, N.G, M.A. Woodvine, P.M. Donnelly, and R. E. Dengler. 1997. Formation of vascular pattern in developing leaves of the C4 grass Arundinella hirta. International Journal of Plant Science 158:1-12.

dePamphilis, C.W., N.D. Young, and A.D. Wolfe. 1997. Evolution of plastid gene rps2 in a lineage of hemiparasitic and holoparastic plants: Many losses of photosynthesis and complex patterns of variation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 94:7367-7372.

Desvaux, N.A. 1810. Extrait d'un mémoire sur quelques nouveaux genres de la famille des Graminées. Nouveau Bulletin des Sciences 2:187-1890.

Dewey, D.R. 1986. Taxonomy of the Crested Wheatgrasses (Agropyron). Pp. 31-44 in K.L. Johnson (ed.). Crested Wheatgrass: Its Values, Problems and Myths. Symposium proceedings, Logan, Utah, October 3-7,1983. Utah State University, Logan, Utah.

Dillman, A.C. 1946. The beginnings of crested wheatgrass in North America. Journal of the American Society of Agronomy 38:237–250

Dubcovsky, J., A.R. Sclatter, and M. Echaide. 1997. Genome analysis of South American Elymus (Triticeae) and Leymus (Triticeae) species based on variation in repeated nucleotide sequences. Genome 40:505-520. [Good markers found for H genome. Two South American species generally placed in Elymus do not have it. The same species did react to a marker for the Ns genome of Psathyrostachys, as did three species of Leymus. Morphology and habitat also supported transfer of the two species to Leymus: L. erianthus and L. mendocinus].


Eckenwalder, J.E. 1976. Re-evaluation of Cupressaceae and Taxodiaceae: A proposed merger. Madroño 237-256.

Edgar, E. and M.B. Forde. 1991. Agrostis L. in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 29:139-161.

Edgar, E. 1995. New Zealand species of Deyeuxia P. Beauv. and Lachnagrostis Trin. (Gramineae: Aveneae). New Zealand Journal of Botany 33:11-33.

Ehleringer, J.R., T.E. Cerling, and B.R. Helliker. 1997. C4 photosynthesis, atmospheric CO2, and climate. Oecologia 112:285-299.

Everett, J. 1990. Systematic relationships of the Australian Stipeae. Master's thesis, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.


Fang, D.Q. and M.L. Roose. 1997. Identification of closely related citrus cultivars with inter-simple sequence repeat markers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 95:408-417.

Fang, D.Q., M.L. Roose, R.R. Krueger, and C.T. Federici. 1997. Fingerprinting ttrifoliate orange germ plasm accessions with isozymes, RFLPs, and inter-simple sequence repeat markers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 95:211-219.

Flora North America Editorial Committee (eds.). 1993. Flora of North America, vol. 2: Pteridophtyes and Gymnosperms. Oxford University Press, New York.

Florin, R. 1951. Evolution in cordaites and conifers. Acta Horti Bergiani 15:285-388.

Frederiksen, S. 1986. Revision of Taeniatherum (Poaceae). Nordic Journal of Botany. 6:389-397.

Frederiksen, S. and R. von Bothmer. 1986. Relationships in Taeniatherum (Poaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 64:2343-2347.

Frederiksen, S. and R. von Bothmer. 1994. Intergeneric hybridization with Eremopyrum (Poaceae). Nordic Journal of Botanyany 15:39-47.

Freitag, H. 1975. The genus Piptatherum (Gramineae) in southwest Asia. Notes from the Royal Botanical Garden, Edinburgh 33:314-408.

Freitag, H. 1985. The genus Stipa (Gramineae) in southwest and south Asia. Notes from the Royal Botanical Garden, Edinburgh 42:355-489.

Frey, L. 1996. Cheomtaxonomy of the genus Trisetum (Poaceae) in Poland. Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica 41:537-540.


Gardner, J., J.P. Jessop, and D.E. Symon. 1996. The escape of Stipa papposa. Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens 17:173-176.

Gelderen, D.M., P.C. de Jong, and H.J. Oterdoom. 1994. Maples of the World. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

Gillespie, L.J., L.L. Consaul, and S.G. Aiken. 1978. Hybridization and the origin of the arctic grass Poa hartzii (Poaceae): Evidence from morphology and chloroplast DNA restriction site data. Canadian Journal of Botany 75:1978-1997.

Gleason, H.A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of V
ascular Plants of Northestern United States and Adjacent Canada, ed. 2, rev. A. Cronquist. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

Godwin, I.D., E.A.B. Aitken, and L.W. Smith. 1997. Application of inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers to plant genetics. Electrophoresis 18:1524-1528.

Goward, T., P. Diederich, and R. Rosentreter. 1994. Notes on the lichens and allied fungi of British Columbia. II. The Bryologist 97:56-62.

Grant, V. 1981. Plant Speciation. Columbia University Press, New York.

Grass Phylogeny Working Group. 2001. Phylogeny and subfamilial classification of the grasses (Poaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 88:373-457.

Gupta, M., Y.-S. Chyi, J. Romero-Severson, and J.L. Owen. 1994. Amplification of DNA markers from evolutionarily diverse genomes using single primers of simple-sequence repeats. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 89:998-1006.


Hackel, E. 1887. Gramineae. Pp. 1-97 in A. Engler and K. Prantl (eds.). Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, Teil II, 2. Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig.

Hart, J.A. 1987. A cladistic analysis of conifers: Preliminary results. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 68:269-307.

Hawksworth, D.L. and A.Y. Rossman. 1997. Where are all the undescribed fungi? Phytopathology 87:888-891.

Hayward, G.D. and R. Rosentreter. 1994. Lichens as nesting material for northern flying squirrels in the northern Rocky Mountains. Journal of Mammology 75:663-673.

Herrera-Arrieta, Y. 1998. A revision of the Muhlenbergia montana (Nutt.) Hitchc. complex (Poaceae: Chloridoideae). Brittonia 50:23-50.

Heywood, V.H. (ed.). 1978. Flowering Plants of the World. Mayflower Books, New York. [There is a second edition, published by Oxford University Press. Both editions are a great resource for information about plant families].

Hignight, K.W., J.K. Wipff, and S.L. Hatch. 1988. Grasses (Poaceae) of the Texas Cross Timbers and Prairies. Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, College Station, Texas.

Hintum, T.J.L. van, R. von Bothmer, and D.L. Visser. 1995. Sampling strategies for composing a core collection of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare s.l.) collected in China. Hereditas 122:7-17.

Hitchcock, A.S. 1935. Grasses of the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Hitchcock, A.S. 1951. Grasses of the United States, ed. 2, rev. A. Chase. U.S.D.A. Misc. Publ. 200. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Hodkinson, T.R., M.W. Chase, and S.A. Renvoize. 2002. Characterization of a genetic resource collection for Miscanthus (Saccharinae, Andropogoneae, Poaceae) Using AFLP and ISSR PCR. Annals of Botany 89:627-636.

Holmgren, P.K., N.H. Holmgren, and L.C. Barnett (eds). 1990. Index Herbariorum. Part 1: The Herbaria of the World. Regnum Vegetabile [series], vol. 120. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

Horne, F. and A. Kahn. 1997. Phylogeny of North American wild rice, a theory. Southwestern Naturalist 42:423-434. Keywords: Zizania, Phylogeny, DNA, Isozymes.

Hsiao, C., S.W.L. Jacobs, N.P. Barker, and N.J. Chatterton. 1998. A molecular phylogeny of the subfamily Arundinoideae (Poaceae) based on sequences of rDNA. Australian Systematic Botany 11:41-52. [Supports the hypothesis that the subfamily is monophyletic. Danthonieae is monophyletic, but not the Arundineae].

Hultén, E. 1960. Flora of the Aleutian Islands, ed. 2. J. Cramer, Weinheim, Germany.

Hultén, E. 1968. Flora of Alaska and Neighboring Territories: A Manual of Vascular Plants. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.


Ingram, A.I. and J.J. Doyle. 2004. Is Eragrostis (Poaceae) Monophyletic? Insights from nuclear and plastid sequence data. Systematic Botany 29:545-592.


Jaaska, V. 1993. Isozymes in the evaluation of germplasm diversityin wild diploid relatives of cultivated wheat. Pp. 247-257 in A. B. Damania (ed.). Biodiversity and Wheat Improvement. ICARDA [International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas], Aleppo, Syria. J. Wiley, Chichester, New York.

Jaaska, V. 1994. Isozyme evidence on the systematics of Hordeum section Marina (Poaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 191:213-226.

Jaaska, V. 1997. Isozyme differences between the wild diploid and tetraploid wheats. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 44:137-146.

Jacobs, S.W.L. 2001.

Jacobs, S.W.L. and J. Everett. 1973. Jarava plumosa (Gramineae), a new combination for the species formerly known as Stipa papposa. Telopea 7:301-302.

Jacobs, S.W.L. and J. Everett. 1996. Austrostipa, a new genus, and new names for Australasian species formerly included in Stipa (Gramineae). Telopea 6:579-595.

Jacobs, S.W.L., J. Everett, M.E. Barkworth, and C. Hsiao. 2000. Relationships within the Stipoid grasses (Gramineae). Pp. 75-82 in S.W.L. Jacobs and J. Everett (eds). 2000. Grasses: Systematics and Evolution. International Symposium on Grass Systematics and Evolution (3rd:1998). CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria, Australia.

Jacobs, S.W.L., J. Everett, H.E. Connor, and E. Edgar. 1989. Stipoid grasses in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 27:569-582.

Jacobsen, N. and R. von Bothmer. 1995. Taxonomy in the Hordeum murinum complex (Poaceae). Nordic Journal of Botany. 449-458.

Janczyk-Weglarska, J. 1997. An ex situ evological experiment on the morphological and developmental variation of Calamagrostis epigejos (Poaceae). Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica 42:239-247.

Jarvie, J.K. 1992. Taxonomy of Elytrigia sect. Caespitosae and sect. Junceae (Gramineae: Triticeae). Nordic Journal of Botany. 12:155-169.

Jarvie, J.K. and M.E. Barkworth. 1993. Elytrigia. Pp. 1256-1257 in J.C. Hickman (ed.). The Jepson Manual of the Higher Plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.

Jensen, K.B. and K.H. Asay. 1996. Cytology and morphology of Elymus hoffmanii (Poaceae: Triticeae): A new species from the Erzurum province of Turkey. International Journal of Plant Science 157:750-758.

Jensen, K.B. and R.R.-C. Wang. 1997. Cytological and molecular evidence for transferring Elymus coreanus from the genus Elymus to Leymus and molecular evidence for Elymus californicus (Poaceae: Triticeae). International Journal of Plant Science 158:872-877. [Both species have been included in Hystrix, the type species of which is E. hystrix (Hystrix patula), an eastern North American species. RAPD genome markers state that both species react positively with RAPD markers for the Ns marker that occurs in Psathyrostachys and Leymus. Crosses and chromosome length also support inclusion of E. coreanus in Leymus. Elymus californicus did not flower, so no crossing or chromosome data were obtained for it. Morphological and habitat characteristics of the two species are not mentioned, nor is Elymus hystrix.]

Jensen, K.B., Z.-W. Liu, B.-R. Lu, and B. Salomon. 1994. Biosystematic study of hexaploids Elymus tschimganicus and E. glaucissimus. I. Morphology and genomic constitution. Chromosome Research 2:209-215.

Johansen, B. and R. von Bothmer. 1994. Pollen size in Hordeum L.: Correlation between size, ploidy level, and breeding system. Sexual Plant Reproduction 7:259-263.


Kam, Y.K. and J. Maze. 1974. Studies on the relationships and evolution of supraspecific taxa utilizing developmental data. II. Relationships and evolution of Oryzopsis hymenoides, O. virescens, O. kingii, O. micrantha, and O. asperifolia. Botanical Gazette 135:227–247.

Kantety, R.V., X.-P. Zeng, J.L. Bennetzen, and B.E. Zehr. 1995. Assessment of genetic diversity in dent and popcorn (Zea mays L.) inbred lines using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) amplicfication. Molecular Breeding 1:365-373.

Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland, ed. 2. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

Kawano, S. 1963. Cytogeography and evolution of the Deschampsia caespitosa complex. Canadian Journal of Botany 41:719-742.

Kaye, T.N., A. Liston, R.M. Love, D.L. Luoma, R.J. Meinke, and M.V. Wilson (eds.). 1997. Conservation of Native Plants and Fungi. Native Plant Society of Oregon, Corvallis, Oregon.

Kelchner, S.A. and L.G. Clark. 1997. Molecular evolution and phylogenetic utility of the chloroplast rpl16 intron in Chusquea and the Bambusoideae (Poaceae). Molecular Phylogentics and Evolution 8:385-397.

Kellogg, E.A. 1998. Relationships of cereal crops and other grasses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95:2005-2010.

Kimber, G. and K. Tsunewaki. 1988. Genome symbols and plasma types in the wheat group. Pp. 1209-1211 in T.E. Miller and R.M.D. Koebner (eds.). Proceedings of the Seventh International Wheat Genetics Symposium, Cambridge, England 1988. Institute of Plant Science Research, Cambridge, England.

Kimber, G. and Y.-H. Zhao. 1983. The D genome of the Triticeae. Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology 25:581-589.

Kleine, M., W. Michalek, T. Diefenthal, H. Dargatz, and C. Jung. 1997. Construction of a Mlul-YAC library from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and analysis of YAC insert terminal regions. Genome 40:896-902.

Knowles, R.V., G.L. Yerk, K.M. Haas, and R.l. Phillips. 1997. Maternal effects influencing DNA endreduplication in developing endosperm of Zea mays. Genome 40:798-805.

Kostia, S. S.-L. Varvio, P. Vakkari, and P. Pulkkinen. 1995. Microsatellite sequences in a confier, Pinus sylvestris. Genome 38:1244-1248.

Kropp, B.K., D.R. Hansen, P.G. Wolf, K.M. Flint, and S.V. Thomson. 1997. A study on the phylogeny of the Dyer's Woad Rust Fungus and other species of Puccinia from Crucifers. Phytopathology 87:565-571.


Lawrence, G.H.M. 1951. Taxonomy of Vascular Plants. MacMillan, New York.

Lawrence, G.H.M., A.F. G. Buchheim, G.S. Daniels, and H. Dolezal. 1968. Botanico-Periodicum-Huntianum. Hunt Botanical Library, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Lawrey, J.D. 1980. Calcium accumulation by lichens and transfer to lichen herbivores. Mycologia 72:586-594.

Lawrey, J.D. 1989. Lichen secondary compounds: Evidence for a correspoondence between antiherbivore and antimicrobial function. The Bryologist 92:326-328.

Lee, Y.N. 1964a. Taxonomic studies on the genus Miscanthus. Anatomical patterns of leaves. Botanic Magazine [Tokyo] 77:122-130.

Lee, Y.N. 1964b. Taxonomic studies on the genus Miscanthus. Relationships among the sections, subsections, and species, part 1. Journal of Japanese Botany 39:196-205.

Lee, Y.N. 1964c. Taxonomic studies on the genus Miscanthus. Relationships among the sections, subsections, and species, part 2: Enumeration of the species and varieties. Journal of Japanaese Botany 39:257-265.

Lee, Y.N. 1964d. Taxonomic studies on the genus Miscanthus. Relationships among the sections, subsections, and species, part 3: Enumeration of the species and varieties. Journal of Japanaese Botany 39:289-298.

Leonard, B.F. and R. Rosentreter. 1994. Dating a 20th-Century Fault, Elk Summit Talus Apron, Big Creek Area, Valley County, Idaho. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2101. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington. D.C.

Lewis, W.H. and M.P.F. Elvin-Lewis. 1977. Medical Botany. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Linde-Laursen, I. and R. von Bothmer. 1995. Nucleolar organization in three Asiatic species of Hordeum section Stenostachys (Poaceae). Hereditas 122:177-178.

Liu, Z.-W. and R.R.-C. Wang. 1989. Genome analysis of Thinopyrum caespitosum. Genome 32:141-145.

Liu, Z.-W. and R.R.-C. Wang. 1992. Genome analysis of Thinopyrum junceiforme and T. sartorii. Genome 35:758-764.

Liu, Z.-W. and R.R.-C. Wang. 1993a. Genome constitutions of Thinopyrum curvifolium, T. scirpeum, T. distichum, and T. junceum (Triticeae: Gramineae). Genome 36:641-651.

Liu, Z.-W. and R.R.-C. Wang. 1993b. Genome analysis of Elytrigia caespitosa, Lophopyrum nodosum, Pseudoroegneria geniculata subsp. scythica, and Thinopyrum intermedium. Genome 36:102-111.

Löve, A. 1984. Conspectus of the Triticeae. Feddes Repertorium 95:425-521.

Lu, B.-R. 1993a. Biosystematic investigations of Asiatic wheatgrasses-- Elymus L. (Triticeae : Poaceae). Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Plant Breeding Research, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Svalöv, Sweden.

Lu, B.-R. 1993b. Meiotic studies of Elymus nutans and E. jacquemontii (Poaceae: Triticeae) and their hybrids with Pseudoroegneria spicata and seventeen Elymus species. Plant Systematics and Evolution 186:193-212.

Lu, B.-R. 1993c. Genomic relationships within Elymus parviglumis group (Triticeae: Poaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 187:191-211.

Lu, B.-R. and R. von Bothmer. 1990. Genomic constitution of Elymus parviglumis and E. pseudonutans: Triticeae (Poaceae). Heredtias 113:109-119.

Lu, B.-R. and R. von Bothmer. 1992. Interspecific hybridization between Elymus himalayanusi and E. schrenkianus, and other Elymus species (Triticeae: Poaceae). Genome 35:230-237.

Lu, B.-R. and R. von Bothmer. 1993a. Meiotic analysis of Elymus caucasicus, E. longearistatus, and their interspecific hybrids with twenty-three Elymus species: Triticeae (Poaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 185:35-53.

Lu, B.-R. and R. von Bothmer. 1993b. Genomic constitutions of four Chinese endemic Elymus species: E. brevipes, E. yangii, E. anthosachnoides, and E. altissimus (Triticeae: Poaceae). Genome:36:863-876.

Lu, B.-R., K.B. Jensen, and B. Salomon. Biosystematic study of hexaploids Elymus tschimganicus and E. glaucissimus. II. Interspecific hybridization and genomic relationship. Genome 36:1157-1168.

Lu, B.-R. and B. Salomon. 1993. Two new Tibetan species of Elymus (Poaceae: Triticeae) and their genomic relationships. Nordic Journal of Botany 13:353-367.

Lu, X.-F., S.-L. Lu and G.-C. Chen. 2001. A new species of Triekeraia Bor (Gramineae) from Tianshan Mts. im Xianjiang of China. Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 39:275-277.


Marquez, J.M., J.A. Seoane-Camba, and M. Suarez-Cervera. 1997. The role of the intine and cytoplasm in the activation and germination process of Poaceae pollen grains. Grana 36:328-342. Keywords. Pollination, Pollen.

Martín Osorio, V.E., W. Wildpret de la Torre, and J.A. Reyes Betancourt. 2000. Nassella neesiana (Trin. & Ruprecht) Barkworth, una especie invasora en los espacios naturales protegidos de Canarias. Estudios Canarios 44:35-46.

Matthei, O.R. 1965. Estudio critico de las gramíneas del genero Stipa en Chile. Gayana, Botánica 13:1-137. [A superb revision; detailed descriptions, good keys, and lovely illustrations].

Matthei, O., C. Marticorena, R. Rodríguez, M. Kalin Arroyo, M. Muñoz, F.A. Squeo, and G. Arancio. 1997. Nuevas citas y nuevas combinaciones en Poaceae para la Flora de Chile. Gayana, Botánica 54(2):189-192.

Maze, J. and L.R. Bohm. 1997. Studies into abstract properties of individuals. I. Emergence in grass inflorescences. International Journal of Plant Sciences 158:685-692.

McCune, B. and R. Rosentreter. 1995. Distribution and ecology of Thelomma ocellaatum in western North America. Evansia 12:103-106.

McCune, B. and R. Rosentreter. 1997. Hypogymnia subphysodes new to North America. Evansia 14:106.

McCune, B., R. Rosentreter, and A. Debolt. 1997. Biogeography of rare lichens from the cost of Oregon. Pp. 232-241 in T.N. Kaye et al., Conservation and Management of Native Plants and Fungi.

Melderis, A. 1978. Taxonomic notes on the tribe Triticeae (Gramineae) with special reference to the genera Elymus L. sensu lato, and Agropyron Gaertner sensu lato. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 76:369-384.

Miles, C.O., M.E. di Menna, S.W.L. Jacobs, I. Garthwaite, G.A. Lane, R.A. Prestidge, S.L. Marshall, H.H. Wilkinson, C.L. Schardl, O. J.-P. Ball, and G.C.M. Latch. 1998. Endophytic fungi in indigenous Australasian grasses associated with toxicity to livestock. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64:601-606.

Mitchell, W.W. and H.J. Hodgson. 1965. A new ×Agrohordeum from Alaska. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 92:403-407.

Mondrus, M.A. 1978. Morphological and cytological relationships between Stipa robusta and Stipa viridula (Gramineae: Stipeae). Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science 85:84-87.

Moore, G., L. Aragon-Alcaide, M. Roberts, S. Reader, T. Miller, and T. Foote. Are rice chromsomes components of a holocentric chromosome ancestor? Plant Molecular Biology 35:17-23.

Morariu, I. 1972. Stipa L., Aristella Bertol. Pp. 194-209 in Tr. Sazvulesu (ed.) Flora Republicii Socialiste România, vol. XII. Editura Academiei Republicii Socaliste România, Bucuresti.

Moss, E. H. 1983. Flora of Alberta, ed. 2, rev. J.G. Packer. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

Myers, W.M. 1947. Cytology and genetics of forage grasses. Bot. Rev. 13:319-421

Mysore, K.S. and V. Bair. 1997. Nuclear DNA content in species of Eleusine (Gramineae):A critical re-evalutaion using laser flow cytometry. Plant Sytematics and Evolution 207:1-11.


Nagaoka, T. and Y. Ogihara. 1997. Applicability of inter-simple sequence repat polymorphisms in wheaat for use as DNA markers in comparison to RFLP and RAPD markers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 94:597-602.

Nevski, S.A. 1933.

Nevski, S.A. 1934.

Niklas, K.J. 1997a. Adaptive walks through fitness landscapes for early vascular plants. American Journal of Botany 84:16-25.

Niklas, K.J. 1997b. Relative resistance of hollow, septate internodes to twisting and bending. Annals of Botany 275-287. Keywords: Structure, Function, Internodes.

Niklas, K.J. 1998a. Modes of mechanical failure of hollow, septate stems. Annals of Botany 81:11-21. Keywords: Structure, Function, Internodes.

Niklas, K.J. 1998b. The mechanical roles of clasping leaf sheaths: Evidence from Arundinaria tecta (Poaceae) shoots subjected to bending and twisting forces. Annals of Botany 81:23-24.

Noltie, H.J. 1999. Notes relating to the flora of Bhutan: XXXXVIII. Gramineae I, Tribe Stipeae. Edinburgh Journal of Botany 56:285-291.


Ohta, S., M. Koto, T. Osada, A. Matusyama, and Y. Furuta. 2002. Rediscovery of a diploid cytotype of Dasypyrum breviaristatum in Morocco. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 49:305-312.

Ohta. S. and M. Morishita. 2001. Genome relationships in the genus Dasypyrum (Gramineae). Hereditas 135:101-110.

Oja, T. and V. Jaaska. 1996. Isozyme data on the genetic divergence and allopolyploidy in the section Genea of the grass genus Bromus (Poaceae). Hereditas 125:249-255.

Olivera, A.C. de, T. Richter, and J.L. Bennetzen. 1996. Regional and racial specificities in sorghum germplasm assessed with DNA markers. Genome 39:579-587.


Parodi, L.R. 1946. The Andean species of the genus Stipa allied to Stipa obtusa. Blumea Suppement. 3:63-69.

Parodi, L.R. 1947. Revisión de las gramineas Australes Americanas del género Piptochaetium. Revista del Museo de la Plata, Sección Botánica 6:213-310.

Parodi, L.R. 1960. Las especies de Stipa subgénero Pappostipa de la Argentina y Chile. Revista Argentina de Agronomía. 27:65-106.

Parodi, L.R. and E.G. Nicora. 1977. Novedadas en el género Hordeum (Gramineae). Hickenia 1:55-62.

Parsons, B.J., H.J. Newbury, M.T Jackson, and B.F. Ford-Lloyd. 1997. Contrasting genetic diversity relationships are revealed in rice (Oryza sativa L.) using different maarker types. Molecular Breeding 3:115-125.

Peñailillo, P. 2002. El género Jarava Ruiz et Pav. (Stipeae-Poaceae): Delimitación y nuevas combinaciones. Gayana, Botánica 59:27-34.

Perry, J.P., Jr. 1991. The Pines of Mexico and Central America. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. [Great resource for information about the genus in general. Includes clear, black and white photographs and a distribution map for each taxon in addition to descriptions and discussion].

Peschkova, G. 1973. De genera Ptilagrostis Griseb. in Sibiria Orientalis. Novosti Sistematiki Vysshikh Rastenii [New Systematics of Higher Plants] 10:4-9. [Article in Russian. Improved translations gratefully and cheerfully accepted].

Peterson, P.M. and O. Morrone. 1997. Allelic variation in the amphitropical disjunct Lycurus setosus (Poaceae: Muhlenbergiinae). Madroño 41:334-346. Keywords: Lycurus, Disjuncts.

Peterson, P.M. and J.J. Ortíz-Diaz. 1998. Allelic variation in the amphitropical disjunct Muhlenbergia torreyi (Poaceae: Muhlenbergiinae). Brittonia 50:381-391.

Peterson, P.M. and A.M. Planchuelo. 1998. Bromus catharticus in South America (Poaceae: Bromeae). Novon 8:53-60.

Peterson, P.M., R.J. Soreng, and G. Davidse. 1998. (1365). Proposal to conserve the name Elionurus (Poaceae, Andropogoneae) with that spelling. Taxon 47:737-738. Keywords: Eliourus, Elyonurus, Nomenclature.

Phillips, S.M. and W.-L, Chen. 2003. Nots on grasses (Poaceae) for the Flora of China I: Deyeuxia. Novon 13:318-321.

Pilger, R. 1926. Gymnospermae. Pp. 3-4 in A. Engler and K. Prantl (eds.). Die Naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien, ed. 2, vol. 13. Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig.

Pilger, R. (ed. and completed by E. Potztal). 1954. Das System der Gramineae unter Ausschluss der Bambusoidea. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeshichte und Pflanzengeographie 76:281-384.

Pillay, M. 1997. Variation of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes in Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter. Genome 40:815-821.

Proctor, M., P. Yeo, and A. Lack. 1996. The Natural History of Pollination. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. [Great book].

Pryer, K.M., A.R. Smith, and J.E. Skog. 1995. Phylogenetic relationships of extant ferns based on evidence from morphology and rbcL sequences. American Fern Journal 85:205-282.

Pupilli, F., M.E. Caceres, C.L. Quarin, and S. Arcioni. 1997. Segregation analysis of RFLP markers reveals a tetrasomic inheritance in Paspalum simplex. Genome 40:822-828.


Reed, C.F. 1964. A flora of the chrome and manganese ore piles at Canton, in the port of Baltimore, Maryland and at Newport News, Virginia, with descriptions of genera and species new to the flora of the eastern United States. Phytologia 10:321-405. [Voucher specimens are said to be in US, but Barkworth has not been able to confirm this statement].

Rehder, A. 1940. Manual of Cultivated Trees and Shrubs Hardy in North Amercia. MacMillan, New York.

Renno, J.-F., T. Winkel, F. Bonnefous, and G. Bezancon. 1997. Experimental study of gene flow between wild and cultivated Pennisetum glaucum. Canadian Journal of Botany 75:925-931.

Renvoize, S.A. 1998. Gramineas de Bolivia. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England.

Rittenhouse, B. and R. Rosentreter. 1994. The autecology of Challis Milkvetch, an endmic of East-Central Idaho. Natural Areas Journal 14:22-30.

Roalson, E.H. and K.W. Allred. 1997. Vegetative proliferation in Polypogon monspeliensis (Gramineae). Aliso 16:81.

Roig, F.A. 1998. Una neva especie de Stipa (Gramineae) de la Patagonia. Hickenia 2:257-260.

Rojas Ponce, F. 1964. Revisión de las especies de la tribu Stipeae (Poaceae) en Bolivia. Master's thesis, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile.

Rosentreter, R. 1993. Vagrant lichens in North America. The Bryologist 96:333-338.

Rosentreter, R. 1994a. A chemical test for Verrucaria. Evansia 11:78.

Rosentreter, R. 1994b. Displacement of rare plants by exotic grasses. Pp. 170-175 in S.B. Monsen and S.G. Kitchen (compilers). Proceedings of a Symposium on the Ecology, Management, and Restoration of Annual Rangelands, Boise, Idaho, 1992. General Technical Report INT-GTR-313. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, Utah.

Rosentreter, R. 1995. Lichen diversity in managed forests of the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A. Mitteilungen der Eidgenössischen Forschungsanstalt für Wald, Schnee und Landschaft 70:103-124.

Rosentreter, R. 1997. Conservation and management of vagrant lichens in the northern Great Basin, U.S.A. Pp. 242-248 in T.N. Kaye et al., Conservation and Management of Native Plants and Fungi.

Rosentreter, R. and A. DeBolt (eds.). 1998. The Ellen Trueblood Symposium (Boise, Idaho, 1997): Highlighting Idaho's Rare Fungi and Lichens. Technical Bulletin No. 98-1. Idaho State Office, Bureau of Land Management, Boise, Idaho.

Rosentreter, R., G.D. Hayward, and M. Wicklow-Howard. 1997. Northern flying squirrel seasonal food habits in the interior conifer forests of central Idaho, USA. Northwest Science 71:97-102.

Rosentreter, R. and B. McCune. 1996. Distribution and ecology of Teloschistes contortuplicatus in North America. Evansia 13:10-13.

Rostag, S.H. 1992. Saturated NaCl-CTAB solution as a means of field preservation of leaves for DNA analyses. Taxon 41:701-708.

Roshevits, R.Y. and B.K. Shishkin. 1963. Flora of the U.S.S.R., vol.  2 (series ed. V.L. Komarov). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem. [English translation of the 1934 Russian original].


Sakamoto, S. 1967. Genome analysis of the genus Eremopyrum. Wheat Information Service 23/24:21-22.

Schofield, W.B. 1985. Introduction to Bryology. MacMillan, New York.

Scholz, H. 1970. Zur Systematik der Gattung Bromus L. subgenus Bromus (Gramineae). Willdenowia 6:139-159. [I have a rough English translation that you may obtain by requesting it through email to mary@biology.usu.edu].

Scholz, H. 1982. Über Mikro- und Makrohaare einiger Piptatherum- und Stipa-Arten (Stipeae, Gramineae). Willdenowia 12:235-240.

Scholz, H. 1996. Die taxonomie de Stipa fontanesii Parl., und S. maroccana, eine neue Art aus Marokko (Gramineae). Willdenowia 26:225-228.

Seberg, O., S. Frederiksen, C. Baden, and I. Linde-Laursen. 1991. Peridictyon, a new genus from the Balkan peninsula, and its relationship with Festucopsis. Willdenowia 21:87-104.

Semikhov, V.F., L.P. Aref'eva, O.A. Novozhilova, and A.N. Prusakov. 1997. Immunochemical relations between grasses and taxa of seed plants. Biology Bulletin 24:28-37.

Shanmukhaswamie, S.S., A.C. de Oliveira, I.D. Godwin, and J.L. Bennetzen. 1995. Assessment of genome origins and genetic diversity in the genus Eleusine with DNA markers. Genome 38:757-763.

Shaw, R.J. 1989. Vascular Plants of Northern Utah: An Identification Manual. Utah State University Press, Logan, Utah.

Shaw, R.J. 1993. Vascular Plants of Northern Utah: An Identification Manual, second printing. Utah State University Press, Logan, Utah.

Shaw, R.J. 1995. Utah Wildflowers. Utah State University Press, Logan, Utah.

Shechter, Y. 1969. Electrophoretic investigation of the hybrid origin of Oryzopsis contracta. Advancing Frontiers of Plant Sciences 23:19-25.

Shechter, Y. and B.L. Johnson. 1966. A new species of Oryzopsis (Gramineae) from Wyoming. Brittonia 18:342-347.

Shechter, Y. and B.L. Johnson. 1968. The probable origin of Oryzopsis contracta. American Journal of Botany 55:611-618.

Simon, B.K. and T. MacFarlane. 1996. Ecological biogeography of Western Australian grasses. Pp. 12-136 in S.D. Hopper, J.A. Chappill, M.S. Harvey, and A.S. George (eds.). Gondwanan Heritage: Past, Present, and Future of the Western Australian Biota. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, New South Wales, Australia.

Snow, N. 1998. A new species of Leptochloa (Poaceae, Chloridoideae) from Sri Lanka. Novon 8:183-186.

Soil Conservation Service. 1993. Utah List of Scientific and Common Plant Names. Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Soltis, D.E. and P.S. Soltis. 1989. Polyploidy, breeding systems, and genetic differentiation in homosporous pteridophytes. Pp. 241-258 in D.E. Soltis and P.S. Soltis (eds.). Isozymes in Plant Biology. Dioscorides Press, Portland, Oregon.

Soltis, P.S., J.J. Doyle, and D.E Soltis. 1992. Molecular data and polyploid evolution in plants. Pp. 177-201 in P.S. Soltis, D.E. Soltis, and J.J. Doyle (eds.). Molecular Systematics of Plants. Chapman and Hall, New York.

Soreng, R.J. 1998a. Phylogenetics and character evolution in the grass family (Poaceae): Simultaneous analysis of morphological and chloroplast DNA restriction site character sets. The Botanical Review 64:1-85.

Soreng, R.J. 1998b. An infrageneric classification of Poa in North America, and other notes on sections, species, and subspecies of Poa, Puccinellia, and Dissanthelium. Novon 8:187-202.

Soreng, R.J. and J.I. Davis. 1998. Phylogenetics and character evolution in the grass family (Poaceae): Simultaneous analysis of morphological and chloroplasst DNA restriction site character sets. The Botanical Review 64:1-85.

Stace, C.A. 1980. Plant Taxonomy and Biosystematics. University Park Press, Baltimore, Maryland.

Stafleu, F.A. and R.S. Cowan. 1976-1988. Taxonomic Literature: A Selective Guide to Botanical Publications and Collections with Dates, Commentaries and Types. 7 vols, ed. 2. Regnum Vegetabile [series], vols. 94, 98, 105, 110, 112, 115–116. Bohn, Scheltema and Holkema, Utrecht, The Netherlands. [This and the subsequent work, commonly known as TL2, consists of many volumes. It is a superb reference work, one that has made the Manual project much easier than it would have been].

Stafleu, F.A. and E.A. Mennega. 1992+. Taxonomic Literature: A Selective Guide to Botanical Publications and Collections with Dates, Commentaries and Types. Supplement. 6+ vols. Regnum Vegetabile [series], vols. 125, 130, 132, 134–135, 137+. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein, Germany. [This and the previous work, commonly known as TL2, consists of many volumes. All three authors died recently, leaving the fate of future supplements in doubt. It is a superb reference work, one that has made the Manual project much easier than it would have been].

Stebbins, G.L., Jr. and R.M. Love. 1941a. A cytological study of California forage grasses. American Journal of Botany 28:371-382.

Stebbins, G.L., Jr. and R.M. Love. 1941b. An undescribed species of Stipa from California. Madroño 6:137-141.

Steussy, T.F. 1990. Plant Taxonomy. Columbia University Press, New York.

Strickberger, M.W. 1968. Genetics. MacMillan, New York.

Sulaiman, I.M. and C.R. Babu. 1996. Ecological studies on five species of endangered Himalayan poppy, Meconopsis (Papaveraceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnaean Society 121:169-176.

Sun, G.-L., B. Salomon, and R. von Bothmer. 1997. Analysis of tetraploid Elymus species using wheat microsatellite markers and RAPD markers. Genome 40:806-814. [Both sets of markers distinguished between StH and StY species. Accessions of a species clustered together, indicating a correlation with morphology. Wheat microsatellite markers seem to be more efficient for looking at population diversity].

Svitashev, S., T. Bryngelsson, X. Li, and R.C. Wang. 1998. Genome-specific repetitive DNA and RAPD markers for genome identificatioin in Elymus and Hordelymus. Genome 41:120-128.


Taylor, T.N. and E.L. Taylor. 1992. The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

Thomas, H.M., J.A. Harper, M.R. Meredtih, W.G. Morgan, and I.P. King. 1997. Physical mapping of ribosomal DNA sites in Festuca arundinacea and related species by in situ hybridization. Genome 40:406-410. ["However, the present study demonstrates two striking differences between these Festuca species and the rDNA sites in Lolium. In Lolium species, all of which are diploid, there are at least four 18S-5.8S-26S sites found and, in one case nine, which is in stark contrast to tge two sites seen in F. pratensis. The other difference is that the 5S site in Lolium is always on a chromosomes that also has an 18S-5.8S-26S site, while the two sites are never on the same chromosome in the Festuca species studied here. In addition, we have been unable, as yet, to distinguish Lolium multiflorum chromosomes from Lolium perenne chromosomes in L. multiflorum × L. perenne hybrids using GISH (unpublished results) but can routinely differentiate Lolium chromosomes from those of F. pratensis, F. glaucescens, and F. arundinacea."]

Thomas, H.M., J.A. Harper, M.R. Meredith, W.G. Morgan, I.D. Thomas, E. Timms, and I.P. King. 1996. Comparison of ribosomal DNA sites in Lolium species by fuorescent in situ hybridization. Chromosome Research 4:486-490.

Thomas, H.M., W.G. Morgan, M.R. Meredtih, M.W. Humphreys, H. Thomas, and J.M. Leggett. 1994. Identification of parental and recombined chromosomes in hybrid derivatives of Lolium multiflorum × Festuca pratensis by genomic in situ hybridization. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 88:909-913.

Thomasson, J.R. 1976. Tertiary grasses and other angiosperms from Kansas, Nebraska, and Colorado. Ph.D. dissertation, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa.

Thomasson, J.R. 1978. Epidermal paterns of the lemma in some fossil and living grasses and their phylogenetic significance. Science 199:975-977.

Thomasson, J.R. 1979. Late Cenozoic grasses and other angiosperms from Kansas, Nebraska, and Colorado: Biostratigraphy and relationships to living taxa. Kansas Geological Survey Bulletin 218. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kanses. [This is, in essence, the same as Thomasson 1976. It is well worth trying to obtain as it has excellent reproductions of the photographs in Thomasson's dissertation].

Thompson, J.D., D. Manicacci, and M. Tarayre. 1998. Thirty-five years of Thyme: A tale of two polymorphisms. Bioscience 48:805-815.

Thomson, John A. 2002. An improved non-crogenic transport and storage preservative facilitating DNA extraction from 'difficult' plants collected at remote sites. Telopea 9(4):755-760.

Torres, M.A. 1993. Revisión del género Stipa (Poaceae) en la provincia de Buenos Aires. Monografia 12. Ministerio de la Producción, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Comision de Investigaciones Científicas, La Plata, Argentina.

Torres, M.A. 1997. Nassella (Gramineae) del noroeste de la Argentina; Stipa (Gramineae) del noroeste de la Argentina; Nicoraella (Gramineae) un nuevo género para América del Sur. Monografia 13. Ministerio de la Producción y el Empleo, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Comision de Investigaciones Científicas, La Plata, Argentina.

Tsumura, Y., K. Ohba, and S.H. Strauss. 1996. Diversity and inheritance of inter-simple sequence repeat polymorphisms in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and sugi (Cryptomeria japonica). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 92:40-45.

Tsvelev, N.N. 1960.

Tsvelev, N.N. 1976. Zlaki SSSR [Grasses of the Soviet Union]. Nauka, Leningrad, Russia.

Tsvelev, N.N. 1983. Grasses of the Soviet Union. Amerind Publishing, New Delhi, India. [English translation of Tsvelev 1976].


Valdés-Reyna, J. and M.E. Barkworth. 1994. El género Nassella (Poaceae: Stipeae) en México. Acta Botanica Mexicana 26:63-75.

Valdés-Reyna, J. and M.E. Barkworth. 2000. Piptochaetium. Pp. 339-352 in COTECOCA (Comisión Técnico Consultiva de Coeficientes de Agostadero). 2000. Las Gramineas de México, vol. 5. Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia y Desarrollo Rural, México, D.F., México

Valiente-Banuet, A., A. Rojas-Martínez, M. del Coro Arizmendi, and P. Dávila. 1997. Pollination biology of two columnar cacti (Neobuxbaumia mezcalaensis and Neobuxbaumia macrocephala) in the Techuacan Valley, central Mexico. American Journal of Botany 84:452-455. Keywords: Pollination, Cactaceae.

Vázquez, F.M. and J.A. Devesa. 1996. Revisión del género Stipa L. y Nassella Desv. en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. Acta Botanica Malacitana 21:125-189.

Vázquez, F.M. and J.A. Devesa. 1997. Two new species and combinations of Stipa L. (Gramineae) from northwest Africa. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 124:201-209.

Vázquez, F.M., G.l. Gonzales, and J.A. Devesa. 1995. Tipificación de los taxones linneanos del génera Stipa (Gramineae) que viven en la Península Ibéarica. Anales del Jardin Botánico de Madrid 52(2):179-186.

Vázquez, F.M., H. Scholz, and M. Sonnentag. 1999. Dos nuevas especies y una combinación en el género Stipa L., sección Leiostipa Dumort. (Poaceae) para el SE de España. Acta Botanica Malacitana 24:27-32.

Vickery, J.W., S.W.L. Jacobs, and J. Everett. 1986. Taxonomic studies in Stipa (Poaceae) in Australia. Telopea 2:17-23.


Wang, R.R.-C., R. von Bothmer, J. Dvorak, G. Fedak, I. Linde-Laursen, and M. Muramatsu. 1996. Genome symbols in the Triticeae (Poaceae). Pp. 29-34 in R.R.-C. Wang, K.B. Jensen, and C. Jaussi (eds.). Proceedings of the Second International Triticeae Symposium, Logan, Utah, June 20-24, 1994. Forage and Range Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Logan, Utah.

Wang, R.R.-C. and K.B. Jensen. 1994. Absence of the J genome in Leymus species (Poaceae: Triticeae): Evidence from DNA hybridization and meiotic pairing. Genome 37:231-235

Wang, R.R.-C. and X.-Y. Zhang. 1996. Characterization of the translocated chromosome using fluorescence in situ hybridization and random amplified polymorphic DNA on two Triticum aestivum-Thinopyrum intermedium translocation lines resistant to wheat streak mosaic or barley yellow dwarf virus. Chromosome Research 4:583-587.

Watson, L. and M.J. Dallwitz. (1992 onwards). The Families of Flowering Plants: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. Version 15th April 1998. http://biodiversity.uno.edu/delta.

Weakley, A.S. and P.M. Peterson. 1998. Taxonomy of the Sporobolus floridanus complex (Poaceae: Sporobolinae). Sida 18:247-270.

Welsh, S.L. 1974. Anderson's Flora of Alaska and Adjacent Parts of Canada. Brigham Young University Press, Provo, Utah.

Welsh, S.L., N.D. Atwood, L.C. Higgins, and S. Goodrich. 1987. A Utah Flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Brigham Young University Press, Provo, Utah.

Welsh, S.L., N.D. Atwood, L.C. Higgins, and S. Goodrich. 1993. A Utah Flora, ed. 2. Brigham Young University Press, Provo, Utah.

Williams, A.H. 1997. Range expansion northward in Illinois and into Wisconsin of Tridens flavus (Poaceae). Rhodora 99:344-351.

Wilson, F.D. 1963. Revision of Sitanion (Triticeae, Gramineae). Brittonia 15:303-323.

White, S. and J. Doebley. 1998. Of genes and genomes and the origin of maize. Trends in Genetics 14:328-332.

Wolf, P.G. and R.B. Sinclair. 1997. Highly differentiated populations of the narrow endemic plant Maguire Primrose (Primula maguirei). Conservation Biology 375-381.

Wolfe, A.D. and W.J. Elisens. 1993. Diploid hybrid speciation in Penstemon (Scrophulariaceae) revisited. American Journal of Botany 80:1082-1094.

Wolfe, A.D. and W.J. Elisens. 1994. Nuclear ribosmoal DNA restriction-site variation in Penstemon section Peltanthera (Scrophulariaceae): An evaluation of diploid hybrid speciation and evidence for introgression. American Journal of Botany 81:1627-1635.

Wolfe, A.D. and W.J. Elisens. 1995. Evidence of chloroplast capture and pollen-mediated gene flow in Penstemon sect. Peltanthera (Scrophulariaceae). Systematic Botany 20:395-412.

Wolfe, A.D., W.J. Elisens, L.E. Watson, and C.W. dePamphlis. 1997. Using restriction-site variation of PCR-amplified cpDNA genes for phylogenetic analysis of tribe Cheloneae (Scrophulariaceae). American Journal of Botany 84:555-564.

Wolfe, A.D. and C.W. dePamphlis. 1997. Alternate paths of evolution for the photosynthetic gene rbcL in four nonphotosynthetic species of Orobanche. Plant Molecular Biology 33:965-977.

Wolfe, A.D., Q.-Y. Xiang, and S.R. Kephart. 1998. Diploid hybrid speciation in Penstemon (Scrophulariaceae). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95:5112-5115.

Wolff, K., E. Zietkiewicz, and H. Hofstra. 1995. Identification of chrysanthemum cultivars and stability of DNA fingerprint patterns. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 91:439-447.


Yang, H.L. 1987. Agropyron. Pp. 110-116 in P.C. Kuo [ed.]. Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae, vol. 9(3). Science Press, Beijing.

Yang, W., A.C. de Oliveira, I. Godwin, K. Schertz, and J.L. Bennetzen. 1996. Comparison of DNA marker technologies in characterizing plant genome diversity: Variability in Chinese sorghums. Crop Science 36:1669-1676.

Yen, C. and J.-L. Yang. 1990. Kengyilia gobicola, a new taxon from west China. Canadian Journal of Botany. 68:1894-1897.

Yuille, M.A.R., D.R. Goudie, N.A. Affara, and M.A. Ferguson-Smith. 1991. Rapid determination of sequences flanking microsatellites. Nucleic Acids Research 19:1950.


Zanin, A. and H.M. Longhi-Wagner. 1990. Espécies novas de Stipa L. (Gramineae) do sul do Brasil. Bradea 5:342-351.

Zhang, H.B. and J. Dvorak. 1990. The genome origin of tetraploid species of Leymus (Poaceae: Triticeae) inferred from variation in repeated nucleotide sequences. American Journal of Botany 78:871-884.

Zhang, H.B. and J. Dvorak. 1992. The genome origin and evolution of Triticum crassum and T. syriacum determined from variation in repeated nucleotide sequences. Genome 35:806-814.

Zhang, H.B., J. Dvorak, and J.G. Waines. 1992. Diploid ancestry and evolution of Triticum kotschyi and T. peregrinum examined using variation in repeated nucleotide sequences. Genome 35:181-191.

Zhang, X.-Y., Y.-S. Dong. and R.R.-C. Wang. 1996a. Characterization of genomes and chromosomes in partial amphiploids of the hybrid Triticum aestivum × Thinopyrum ponticum by in situ hybridization, isozyme analysis, and RAPD. Genome 39:1062-1071.

Zhang, X.-Y., A. Koul, R. Petroski, T. Ouellet, G. Fedak, Y.-S. Dong, and R.R.-C. Wang. 1996b. Molecular verification and characterization of BYDV-resistant germ plasms derived from hybrids of wheat with Thinopyrum ponticum and Th. Intermedium. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 93:1033-1039.

Zhang, Z.-Y., B.-R. Lu, and J. Wen. 1998. The structural features of leaf epidermis in Oryza and their systematic significance. Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 36:8-18. Keywords Oryzeae, Oryza, Morphology, Leaf anatomy, Systematics.

Zietkiewicz, E., A. Rafalski, and D. Labuda. 1994. Genome fingerprinting by simple sequence repeat (SSR)-anchored polymeraase chain reaction amplification. Genomics 20:176-183.