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Sides of glumes

Spikelet

Glume, side view

Lemma

Palea

Glume from back

Specimen

Description

Plants perennial, caespitose.  Culms 45- 80 cm tall, 0.9-2.4 mm thick, with 2-3 nodes; internodes glabrous.

Basal leaves: sheaths glabrous or hairy, becoming fibrous at maturity; auricles absent or to 1.6 mm long, present on about half the basal leaves; ligule 0.3-0.8 mm long, membranous, truncate; blade 5-12 cm long, 1.2-4 mm wide, with 8-16 veins, abaxial surface smooth to scabridulous, sometimes lower blades sparsely hairy with hairs to 1 mm long, adaxial surface scabridulous over the veins.

Inflorescence spikelike, 12-30(70) cm long, with 6-13 spikelets, spikelets not pediclellate; rachis not extended beyond the distal spikelet, outer surface glabrous; middle internodes 18-30 mm long.

Spikelets solitary, tangential to the rachis, 16-50 mm long, with 4-8 florets; rachilla internodes shortly hairy, distal hairs not overlapping the base of the callus above; middle internodes 18-30 mm long.

Glumes equal or unequal, with hyaline margins more than 0.5 mm wide; lower glume 7.5-11 mm long, 1.5-3.3 mm wide, 5-6-veined, unawned or with an awn to 0.7 mm long; upper glume 7-12.5 mm long, 1.2-1.9 mm wide. 5-8-veined, unawned or with an awn to 0.7 mm long.

Calluses 0.5-0.7 mm long, as wide or wider than long, with a longitudinal furrow, hairy except in the furrow, hairs about 0.1 mm long. Lemmas 9-15 mm long, 5-7-veined, glabrous or with hairs to 0.2 mm long distally and on the margins, awned, awn of the lowest lemma 8.5-12.5 mm long, awns of the upper lemmas 17-27 mm long, awns 1-veined from the base, curved to divergent. Paleas 7.2-10 mm long, 65-80% as long as the lemma body, keels with teeth 0.05-0.1 mm long, straight or concavely curved below the tip, tips separated by 0.35-0.65 mm, intercostal region truncate to rounded. Anthers 2-5.5 mm long.

Distribution

AUSTRALIA: New South Wales and southeastern Queensland.

Ecology

In grasslands, on self-mulching soiles.

Cytology

2n =42, StYW.

Other treatments

Currently treated as Elymus plurinervis  in Australia, as Anthosachne australasica var. plurinervis (Vickery) C. Yen & J.L. Yang by Yen and Yang (2006).

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Comments

The unawned glumes with their relatively wide hyaline margins and 1-veined glumes are distinctive features of Anthosachne plurinervis. Awns with only one vein are the norm in Elymus sensu stricto.

Formal citation of name

Yen and Yang have transferred this taxon to Anthosachne. They treat it as a variety: Anthosachne australasica var. plurinervis (Vickery) C. Yen & J.L. Yang. It is not valid because Anthosachne australasica is not valid. The appropriate combination for its ecognition as a species is in a manuscript by Barkworth and Jacobs.

Reference(s)

Jacobs, S.W.L., R.H. D. Whalley, and D.J.B. Wheeler. 2008. Grasses of New South Wales, ed. 4. University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia.

Wang, S., M.J. Henwood, and C.M. Weiller. 2009. Elymus, pp. 96-99 in Flora of Australia, vol. 44a. Poaceae 2. CSIRO Publishing