Synopsis of the mannagrass Glyceria (Poaceae)

© UDC 5X2.542.1

N.N. Tsvelev

V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Science
Prof. Popov Ste. 2
197376 St . Petersburg
Received 30.August.2005

Citation: Tsvelev, N.N. 2006. Synopsis of the mannagrass genus, Glyceria (Poaceae). Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow and Leningrad). 2006. 91(2):255–276.

Translation by Marina Olanova, University of Tomsk, Russia, and Mary Barkworth, Utah State University, U.S.A. We have tried to be accurate but, if you notice inaccuracies, please send corrections to Mary Barkworth.

Links to remainder: Conspectus; Key; Excluded taxa.

Mannagrass or Glyceria R.Br. is one of the main genera in the small, isolated tribe Meliceae Reichenb. which includes primarly non-tropical grasses. Glyceria has sometimes been treated as constituting its own tribe, Glycerieae Endl., based on its hydrophilic nature and base chromosome number of x = 10, not 9 as in Melica. Nevertheless, these two genera are so similar in southeast Asia that they should be separated at the subtribal, rather than the tribal level, with Glyceria being placed in subtribe Glycerinae Dumort.

As can be seen from the map, species of Glyceria grow in the warm temperate areas of both the north and south hemispheres, entering into the tropics in mountainous areas. They are absent from southern Africa but are represented in Australia and southern South America. They are relatively abundant in eastern Asian and eastern North America. The early specialization of the species in the genus has enabled it to retain some primitive characters that are more characteristic of bamboos, for instance the large number of florets (up to 20) per spikelet and the presence of 79 veins in the lemmas. The possession of completely closed leaf sheaths is related to the hydrophilic nature of the genus for it protects the intercalary meristems from water. Similarly, the scabrous veins of the lemmas promote dispersal of its diaspores.

The American cytologist G.L. Church (1949) determined the chromosome number of American species then included in Glyceria and found that a quarter of them had x = 7, instead of 10. This observation was of great importance in delimiting Glyceria.

The species with x = 7 proved to have open leaf sheaths, lemmas with 5 veins, and completely different lodicules. They are now regarded as constituting the genus Torreyochloa Church, which belongs to a different tribe, the Poeae, within which it is treated as constituting a distinct subtribe, Torreyochlorineae Soreng & J. Davis (Soreng et al. 2003). The similarity of the spikelets of Torreyochloa and Glyceria is so high that in the Flora of the USSR (Komarov 1934), the far eastern species T. natans (Kom) Church was placed in the same series as four true species of Glyceria.

A long time ago, Glyceria was divided into two sections: Glyceria sect. Glyceria with G. fluitans as its type and Glyceria sect. Hydropoa Dumort. with G. maxima as its type. I treat these sections as subgenera, the latter divided into eight sections. The Australian species G. drummondii is quite close to sect. Hemibromus of subg. Glyceria, but it is treated as a distinct, third subgenus. The range of the two largest subgenera overlap to a considerable extent, but subg. Hydropoa does not does not extend into the southern hemisphere. Because of their significant heterobathmy [combination of primitive and advanced characteristics], it is unlikely, that these subgenera are derived from each other. For instance, species of subg. Hydropoa are long-lived perennials, usually have long rhizomes (among grasses this character is usually secondary) and small spikelets, whereas the species of subg. Glyceria usually have a shorter lifespan and frequently have very long, spikelets with many florets. The larger glumes of the species of subg. Glyceria are, probably, a derived character, as is the formation of wings on the palea keels.

Of the sections that I recognize, sect. Hydropoa ranges over almost all the warm temperate areas of Eurasia and North America, with its species probably evolving in parallel on the two continents. Despite the fact that the American G. grandis with 2n = 20 and the smallest spikelets is considered the most primitive in the section, it does not follow that the ancestral species of the section entered Eurasia from North America. Glyceria triflora with 2n = 20 is an Asian species that is very similar to G. grandis and only slightly less primitive.

The European species G. maxima with 2n = 60 is undoubtedly the most recently derived species. It is probably of hybrid origin but its progenitors are very difficult to determine. One of them is probably G. triflora or G. arundinacea; the other might be G. notata (2n = 40) even though it belongs to a different subgenus. The origin of the Siberian sect. Scolochloiformis is rather mysterious, and the morphological similarity of its type species, G. spiculosa, to the genus Scolochloa Link, which belongs in a different tribe, is difficult to explain because of its chromosome base number (in Scolochloa 2n = 28).

The Eurasian sect. Lithuanicae is similar to sect. Hydropoa, but it is also very similar to sect. Striatae. Church (1949) combined the two sections because in both the florets usually have only two stamens. The remaining two sections are more highly specialized and have some features that are transitional to to subg. Glyceria. One of the sections, sect. Striatae, is restricted to North America; the other, sect. Caspiae, is restricted to Asia. Some species of these sections extend into the tropics in mountainous areas.

Within Glyceria subg. Glyceria, sect. Leptorhiza is least advanced. This is indicated by its lack of wings on its paleal keels and its thin, weakly scabrous lemmas. Its distribution is amphipacific. The species of sect. Glyceria are widely distributed in moderately warm areas of both the northern and the southern hemispheres, occurring in the south of Australia and of South America. Many poöid grass genera have such a bipolar distribution, although it is difficult to explain. Obviously, the explanation should be the same for all the genera involved.

Earlier (Tzvelev, 1977) I reported that the distribution of feather grasses (Stipa sensu lato) from Asia through Northern and Central America and Andes to Tierra del Fuego seemed to be very improbable. It appears that, given the number of similar distribution patterns, I underestimated the possibilities of parallel evolution from distant ancestors.

Despite its high specialization, the disjunction of the distribution of sect. Hemibromus from East Asia to eastern North America suggests that it is very ancient. This distribution pattern is characteristic of many wood and shrub species that were widely distributed in Neogene. It is obvious, that the species of sect. Hemibromus had the same wide distribution in the past; they could, for example, be one of ancestors of the allopolyploid species G.fluitans. The ancestral position of this section is supported by the possibility of deriving the extremely unusual Australian subg. Porroteanthe from it.

Data on chromosome numbers provide evidence of the major role that hybridization has played in the evolution of Glyceria. Chromosome numbers of 2n = 40 and 60 are widely distributed within the genus and are undoubtedly a consequence of hybridization, although which species are involved is difficult to discern without special genetic research.

The large holdings of Glyceria in the Herbarium of the V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute (named in honor of Komarov) of the Russian Academy of Science (LE), was critically examined for this study. Below is a very brief summary of the results of this revision in the form of a list of species, ordered in accordance with the system that I propose, including some new taxa among which are six new species. In order to reduce the length of this paper, only the dates of publication of the synonyms are given, with some Russian data, not the full bibliographic information. The distribution of the taxa is given in restricted form. The known intersectional hybrids are listed at the end of revision. There are probably many more than are listed.

Synopsis of GLYCERIA R. Br.

Subgen. 1. Hydropoa (Dumort.) Tzvel. comb. et stat. nov. - G. sect. Hydropoa) Dumort., 1824, Observ. Gram. Belg.: 111. - Exydra Endl. 1830. -Hydropoa (Dumort.) Dumort., 1868, nom. superfl. Type: G. maxima (Hartm.) Holmb.

Sect. 1. Hydropoa Dumort., 1824, 1. with: 111. Typus: G. maxima (Hartm.) Holmb.

1 . G. grandis S.Watson, 1890, in A.Gray, Man. Bot. North. Unit. Stat., ed. 6: 667. - G. aquatica var. americana Torr., 1823; - G. americana (Torr.) Pammel, 1905; G.flavescens Jones, 1910; - G. maxima subsp. grandis (S. Watson) Hult., 1942; - G. arundinacea subsp. grandis (S. Watson) Tzvel., 1971; - G. triflora auct. non (Korsh.) Kom.: Kravchenko, 1997, Additions to Flora of Karelia: 16. Big Mannagrass .

Native to temperate warm areas of North America; established in Norway, Finland and Russia (Petrozavodsk). It was described from southeastern Canada. 2n = 20 (Church, 1942).

2. G. pulchella (Nash) Shum., 1903, Bot. Jahresber. (Just) 29, 1 : 513. - Panicularia pulchella Nash, 1901. Beautiful Mannagrass.

Native to Alaska and northwestern Canada; described from Alaska. 2 ? = 20 (Bowden, 1960).

3. G. triflora (Korsh.) Kom., 1934, in Flora of the USSR, 2 : 459, 758. - G. aquatica var. triflora Korsh., 1892. - G. kamtschatica Kom., 1934. - G. debilior var. karafutensis Ohwi, 1941. - G. maxima subsp. trijlora (Korsh.) Hult., 1962. - G. arundinacea subsp. triflora (Korsh.) Tzvel. 1971. Three-flowered Mannagrass.

Native to Russia from Ural to Kamchatka and Sakhalin, N Kazakhstan, Mongolia, northeastern China, North Korea; described from the Amur region, Russia. 2 n = 20 ( ??????????? , Probatova, 1973).

Two specimens, collected by Faurie in the south of Sakhalin with unusually wide (8-20 mm) leaves should be treated as a variety:

G. triflora var. fauriei Tzvel. var. nov. (Foliorum laminae 8-20 mm It., sat molles. Paniculae 20-35 cm lg., valde ramosae. Lemmata 2.5-3 mm long.

Holotypus: LE; « Insula Sagalien, in paludibus Vladimirof, 30 VII 1908, N 790, leg. Faurie ». Paratypus: « In paludibus Korsakof, 4 IX 1908, N 789, leg. Faurie » - LE). The nominal variety, var. trijlora- is absent from S. Sakhalin, which suggests that a rank higher than variety might be appropriate.

4. G. effusa Kitag., 1937, Bot. Mag. Tokyo, 51 : 152. - G. angustifolia B. Skvorts., 1954. Sprawling Mannagrass.

Native the southern portion of far eastern Russia, northeastern China, North Korea; described from northeastern China. 2 n =?

G. effusa var. coreana (Ohwi) Tzvel. comb. nov. ( G. spiculosa var. coreana Ohwi, 1931, Bot. Mag. Tokyo, 45 : 382. = G. angustifolia B. Skvorts., 1954, ???. Harbin. ??? - ?? ??????????? . ?????? . 12 : 29), described from North Korea (« Dai-j-taku in prov. Kankyo-hokudo») may be included in narrow-leaved variety (leaves 3-5 mm wide .) . In Russia G. effusa grows mainly along the Amur river, differing from the common far eastern species G. triflora in its widely divergent panicle branches that are strongly scabrous or their whole length.

5. G. amurensis Probat., 1981, the Bot.Journ. 66, 11 : 1589. Amur Mannagrass .

Russia (a lower reaches of Amur and ?? gun , vicinities of Magadan); described from the lower reaches of the Amur River. 2 n = 20 ( ??????????? , Probatova , 1973).

This species was described as hybrid, G. triflora X G. leptorhiza. Its panicles are narrower than those of G. triflora and its spikelets have more florets. This may be an evidence of its hybrid origin, but probably it is an established hybrid.

6. G. arundinacea Kunth, 1833, Enum. PI. 1 : 367. - G. retinosa Velen., 1889. - G. aquatica subsp. arundinacea (Kunth) Aschers. et Graebn., 1900. Reed Mannagrass.

Southern Europe, Caucasus, Balkan, Northwestern Iran; described from North Caucasus. 2 n = 60 (Polya, 1949), but, probably, the count applies to G. aquatica.

7. G. maxima (Hartm.) Holmb., 1919, Bot. Notis. (Lund) 1919 : 97. - Molinia maxima Hartm., 1820. - Poa aquatica L. 1753. - Glyceria aquatica (L). Wahl. 1820, non (L.) J. et With Presl, 1819. - G. spectabilis Mert. et Koch, 1823. - G. altissima Gar-cke, 1851. Largest Mannagrass.

Almost all Europe,to southwestern Siberia, Caucasus (W. Ciscaucasia and Abkhazia), Turkey; established in Canada and New Zealand; described from Europe. 2 n = 60 (many authors).

Sect. 2. Scolochloiformes (Kom.) Probat., 1985, in the Sosud. rast. Daln. Vost. 1 : 330. - G. ser. Scolochloiformes Kom., 1934. - Typus: G. spiculosa (F. Schmidt) Roshev.

8. G. spiculosa (F. Schmidt) Roshev., 1929, in ?? . ?????? . 1 : 85. - Scolochloa spiculosa F. Schmidt, 1868. - Glyceria paludificans Kom., 1916. - M. ???????????????? .

Russia (Eastern Siberia and the Far East), Northeast. Mongolia, Northeast China, North Korea; described from Sakhalin. 2 n = 40 ( ??????????? , Probatova , 1973).

9. G. longiglumis Hand.-Mazz., 1938, Osterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 87 : 130 - M. ?????? ???????? .

China (desert Gobi). It is described from the Inner Mongolia. 2 ? =? I have not seen samples of this species.

10. G. alnasteretum Kom., 1914, Feddes Repert. 13 : 87. - M. ????????????? .

Russia (Kamchatka, Sakhalin, Kuril and Commander islands, near Magadan),North Japan, Aleutian islands (« Attu isl., 26 VIII 1945, N 488, G. Soule » - LE); described from Kamchatka. 2 n = 20, 40 ( ??????????? , ????????? , 1973).

This probably arose from hybridization between G. spiculosa and G. lithuanica.

Sect. 3. Lithuanicae Tzvel. sect. nov. Plantae longe rhizomatosae ad 1.5 m alt. Paniculae effusae. Lemmata anguste elliptica, 2.5-4 mm long. Stamina 2, antheris 0.5 -0.7 mm long. Rhizomatous plants up to 1.5 m tall. Panicles sprawling. Lemmas narrow-eliptical, 2.5-4 mm long. Stamens 2, anthers 0.5-0.7 mm long. Typus: G. lithuanica (Gorski) Gorski.

11. G. lithuanica (Gorski) Gorski, 1849, Icon. Bot. Char. Cyper. Gram. Lith. tab. 20. - Poa lithuanica Gorski, 1830. - Glyceria norvegica Sommerf., 1837. - G.r ? mota (Forselles) Fries, 1839, quoad pl. - G. aquatica var. debilior Trin. ex F. Schmidt, 1868. - G. debilior (Trin. ex F. Schmidt) Kudo, 1922, quoad nom. - G. arundinacea auct. non Kunth: Kit Tan, 1985, in Davis, Fl. Turkey, 9:536, p. p. Lithuanian Mannagrass .

Russia (north of the forest zone and N Caucasus), Belarus,Baltic republics, Poland, Finland, North Turkey, Mongolia, northeastern China, North Korea and Japan; described from Lithuania. 2 n = 20 ( ??????????? , Probatova , 1973). |

Samples from an isolated location in Turkey (mountain Pontijskie) have stiffer leaves that are 2.5-6 mm wide and glaucous on the adaxial surface and have almost smooth panicle branches. They can be treated as G. lithuanica var. pontica Tzvel., var. nov. (A G. lithuanica var. lithuanica foliorum laminis rigidioribus, supra canescenti-viridibus et paniculae ramis sublaevi-.. busdiffert. Typus: « B.Balansa. Plantes D, Orient, 1866, N 1555, Khabakhor, Lasistan, 30 VII 1866 » - LE cum 2 isotypis). In « Flora of Turkey » (Kit Tan, 1. with.) this sample is one of 2 samples, cited under the name G. arundinacea , whereas the second sample proved to be the new species G. holubii from another section, which is described below.

12. G. leptolepis Ohwi, 1931, Bot. Mag. Tokyo, 45 : 381. - G. ussuriensis Kom., 1934. - M. ???????????? .

Russia (southern Far East), Northeast China, peninsula Korea, Japan; described from Japan. 2 n = 20 ( ??????????? , Probatova , 1973).

Sect. 4. Striatae Church, 1949, Amer. Journ. Bot. 36 : 162. - Nevroloma Raf., 1819. - Typus: G. striata (Lam.) Hitchc.

13. G. striata (Lam.) Hitchc, 1928, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 41 : 157; ??????? , ??????????? , 2001.Bot. J. 86, 12 : 91. - Poa striata Lam., 1791. - P. nervata Willd., 1797. - Glyceria michauxii Kunth, 1829. - G. nervata (Willd.) Trin., 1830. - M. ???????????????? .

Southern Canada, U.S.A., Northern Mexico; established in many countries of Europe, including Ukraine (White Church) and in Russia (park Smolensk ???????? ); described from the U.S.A. (Virginia and Carolina). 2 n = 20 (many authors).

Plants called by this name in northern countries of Europe belong to the following species, which is frequently accepted as a subspecies or variety of G. striata).

14. G. neogaea Steud., 1854, Syn. PI. Glum. 1 : 285. - Panicularia nervata stricta Scribn., 1898. - P. nervata rigida Nash, 1900. - Glyceria striata subsp. stricta (Scribn.) Hult., 1942. - G. rigida (Nash) Rydb., 1932, non (L). Smith, 1824.-M. ???????????????? .

Alaska, Canada, northeastern USA; established in Fennoscandia and Latvia. Described from Canada (Newfoundland). 2 n = 20 (many authors).

This is a more northern derivative of G.striata, that has shorter stems, narrower and more rigid leaves, smaller and less sprawling panicles.

15. G. mexicana (Kelso) Beetle, 1981, Phytologia, 48,2:191. - G. striata var. mexicana Kelso, 1935. Mexican Mannagrass.

Mexico, western`U.S.A. (« Idaho, 11 VII 1901, ?. Merrill, E. Wilcox, N 228 » - LE), Antilles (« Antillen, 1804, D. Decandolle » - LE); described from Mexico. 2n =?

16. G. colombiana Giraldo-Canas, 2002, Caldasia, 24,1:10. - M. Colombian.

Columbia; described from Columbia. 2 n =?

17. G. elata (Nash) Jones, 1910, Bull. State Univ. Montana, Biol. Ser. 15 : 17. - Panicularia elata Nash, 1900. - Glyceria latifolia J. Cotton, 1902. - M. high.

Southwestern Canada, western U.S.A.; introduced to France (« Foret de Mendon, 4 VII 1860, ?. Delacroix»-LE); described from the USA (Montana). 2 n = 20 (Church, 1942).

18. G. canadensis (Michx.) Trin., 1830, Mem. Acad. Petersb. Ser. 6. Math Phys. Nat. 1, 4 : 366. -Briza canadensis Michx., 1803. -Nevroloma canadensis (Michx.) Raf., 1819. - M. Canadian.

Eastern Canada, northeastern U.S.A.: established in Germany and Finland; described from Canada. 2 n = 60 (Church, 1942; Bowden, 1960).

19. G laxa (Scribn.) Scribn. ex Rand & Redf., 1894, Fl. Mt. Desert: 180. - Panicularia laxa Scribn., 1894. - G. canadensis var. laxa (Scribn.) Hitchc, 1934. - M. ???????????????? .

Southeastern Canada, Northeastern U.S.A.; described from the U.S.A. (Maine). 2 n =? Recently (Soreng et al., 2003 : 379) treated this as a hybrid, G. melicaria X G. canadensis, but more likely it is a`species with a hybrid origin.

20. G. nubigena W. A. Anderson, 1933, Rhodora, 35 : 321. Southern Appalachian Mannagrass.

The USA (Tennessee, South Carolina); described from the U.S.A. (Tennessee). 2 n = 40 (Church, 1942).

21. G. obtusa (Muhl.) Trin., 1830, Mem. Acad. Sci. Petersb. Ser. 6. Math. Phys. Nat. 1,4 : 366. - Poa obtusa Muhl., 1817. - M. ???????????? .

Southestern Canada, northeastern USA; described from the USA (Pennsylvania). 2 n = 40 (Church, 1942).

22. G. melicaria (Michx.) F. T. Hubb., 1912, Rhodora, 14 : 186. - Panicum melicarium Michx., 1803. - Poa torreyana Spreng., 1821. - P. elongata Torr., 1823, non Willd., 1809. - Glyceria elongata Trin., 1836. - G. torreyana (Spreng.) Hitchc, 1906. - M. ????????????? .

Southeastern Canada, northeastern U.S.A.; described from the USA (Carolina). 2 n = 40 (Church, 1942).

Sect. 5. Caspiae Tzvel. sect. nov. Plantae breviter rhizomatosae ad 1.5 m alt. Paniculae vulgo angustae, rarius effusae. Lemmata ovata, 2-4.2 mm long. Stamina 3, antheris 0.5-1.2 mm long.

Shortly rhizomatous plants up to 1.5 mm tall; p anicles usually narrow, seldom spreading; lemmas ovoid, 2-4.2 mm long . Stamens 3; anthers 0.5-1.-2 mm long. Typus : G. caspia Trin.

23. G. ischyroneura Steud., 1854,1. ? . : 427. - ?. ??????????????? .

Japan (except for Far North); described from Japan. 2 ? =?

24. G. voroschilovii Tzvel. sp. nov. G. ischyroneura auct. non Steud.: ????? ., 1966, ?? . ??? . ????? . ???? .: 66, ? . ? .? - Culmi 50-100 cm alti, in parte inferiore ascendentes, prope basin 4-5 mm crass. Laminae 3-6 mm It., virides, utrinque secus nervos plus minusve scabrae; vaginae laeves; ligulae 2-4 mm long. Paniculae paulo effusae, 12-20 mm long., sat paucispiculatae, ramis scabriusculis. Glumae 1.7-2.2 et 2.3-3 mm long., acutae. Lemmata 3.2-3.5 mm long., pallide roseo-violacea, lanceola- te-ovata, secus nervos paulo scabra, acutiuscula. Paleae lemmatis subaequales, carinis curvatis. Caryopsis ellipsoidea, 1.8-2 mm long.

Culms 50-100 cm tall, ascending from the base, bases 4-5 mm thick. Blades 3-6 mm wide, green, scabrous over the veins on both sides; sheaths smooth; ligules 2-4 mm long. Panicles weakly divergent, 12-20 mm long., with few spikelets, branches slightly scabrous. Glumes 1.7-2.2 and 2.3-3 mm long., acute. Lemmas 3.2-3.5 mm long., mauve, lance-ovoid, slightly scabrous on veins, slightly sharp.; paleas almost equal to lemmas, with bent keels. Caryopses 1.8-2 mm long . - M.Voroshilov.

Typus: « Insulae Kurilenses, Iturup, rivulus siccus montis Rebunshiri, 1 IX 1965, N 3240, E. Egorova, L. Alexeeva » - LE.

Affinitas (relationship). A species G. ischyroneura Steud. lemmatis longioribus (3.2-3.5, non 2.5-3 mm long.), ligulis longioribus et laminis angustioribus (3-6, non 5-10 mm It.) differt. - From G. ischyroneura differing in its longer (3.2-3.5 instead of 2.5-3 mm long.) lemmas, longer ligules and narrower (3-6, instead of 5-10 mm wide.) leaf blades.

Species in memoriam botanici rossici excellentis, investigatoris florae Orientis Extremi - V. N. Voroschilovii denominata est. - The species is named in memory of the outstanding Russian botanist and student of the flora of the Far East - V.N.Voroshilov.

Kuriles; described from island Iturup. 2 ? =?

The samples under the name « G. ischyroneura » from island Iturup, kindly sent to us by V.N.Voroshilov and N.S.Probatova, have proved to belong to different newspecies. It is quite possible, that G. voroschilovii has a hybrid origin: G. probatovae X G. lithuanica (or G. alnasteretum). Typical G. ischyroneura , apparently , occurs only to the South of island Hokkaido.

25. G . probatovae Tzvel. sp. nov. G. ischyroneura auct. non Steud.: ?????? ., 1985, ??? . ??? .: 333. - Culmi 40-60 cm alti, prope basin 2-3 mm crass., vulgo appropinquate. Laminae 1.5-4 mm lt., virides, supra scabrae; vaginae laeves; ligulae 0.3-1.5 mm long. Paniculae angustae, sed laxae et sat paucispiculatae, ramis scabriusculis. Spiculae 5-7 mm long., 3-7-florae. Glumae 0.5-1.2 et 1.3-2 mm long., obtusae. Lemmata 2-2.5 mm long., ovata, secus nervos scabra, obtusa. Paleae lemmatis subaequales, carinis valde curvatis. Antherae 0.5-0.7 mm long. Stems 40-60 cm lg, near the basis 2-3 mm. thick, usually closed together. Leave blades 1.5-4 mm broad, green, upper side scabrous; sheathes smooth; ligule 0.3-1.5 mm long. Panicle narrow, but friable and with relative small amount of florets, and slightly scabrous branches. Spikelets 5-7 mm long., with 3-7 florets. Glumes 0.5-1.2 and 1.3-2 mm long., obtuse. Lemma 2-2.5 mm long., ovoid, scabrid on veins, obtuse. Palea almost equal to lemma, along keels is strongly bent. Anthers 0.5-0.7 mm long. Probatova's Mannagrass

Typus (type): « Insulae Kurilenses, Iturup, in viciniis pag. Sentjabrjskij, 65 km borealiter versus a sin. Kasatka, in valle fl. Sentjabrjskaja, 14 VIII 1968, N 1307, N. Probatova ». - LE.

Affinitas (relationship). A speciebus proximis G. ischyroneura Steud. et G. voroschilovii Tzvel. lemmatis brevioribus (2-2.5 mm long.), palearum carinis valde curvatis et culmis multo tenujoribus vulgo approximatis differt. - From related species G. ischyroneura and G. voroschilovii differs in shorter lemma, strongly bent keel of palea and much more thin and usually closed stems.

Species in honorem botanici rossici excellentis, investigatoris florae Orientis Extremi (imprimis Poaceae) - N. S. Probatovae denominata est. - the species is named in honour of oustanding Russian botany, the researcher of flora of the Far East (especially grasses) - N.S.Probatova.

Russia (Kuriles), Japan. It is described from island Iturup. 2 ? = 40 ( ??????????? , ????????? , 1973).

This species is morphologically similar to G. tonglensis With. ?. Clarke, and, apparently, it was exactly this species, which has been described from Japan as G. tonglensis var. honshuana Kelso (1935, Rhodora, 37 : 263). In Japan it is probably confused with G. ischyroneura. it grows in mountain areas. In Herbarium LE there are 11 samples of this species from Japan.

26. G. ovatiflora Keng ex Tzvel. sp. nov.; Keng, 1959, Fl. Ill. PI. Prim. Sinic. Gram.: 250, fig. 203, descr. sin.; Keng ex P. With Keng, 1982, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 4,3:273, nom. altern. - G. tonglensis var. ovatiflora P. C. Keng, 1982, l. c: 274, nom. altem. - Culmi 50-150 cm alti. Laminae 3-7 mm lt, supra canescenti-virides, scabriusculae. Ligulae 1.5-2.5 mm long. Paniculae 15-35 cm lg., vulgo angustae, sed multispiculatae, ramis sublaevibus. Glumae 1-1.5 et 1.8-2.3 mm long. Lemmata 2.9-3.2 mm long., ovata, scabriuscula. Paleae lemmatis vix breviores, carinis curvatis. Antherae 0.9-1.2 mm long. Stems 50-150 sm high. Leave blades 3-7 mm wide., from above glaucous, poorly scabrous. Ligule 1.5-2.5 mm long. Panicle 15-35 sm lg., usually narrow, but multifloret, with almost smooth branches. Glumes 1-1.5 and 1.8-2.3 mm long. Lemma 2.9-3.2 mm long., ovoid, feebly scabrous. Palea a bit shorter than lemma, with the bent keels. Anthers 0.9-1.2 mm long. - ?. ????????????????? .

Typus: « Herb. Maire, Yunnan Septentrional et Central, Song Schouan, 1909-1911, N6952 » - LE. Paratypi: « Herb. Maire, 1909-1911, N6933 et N 6936 ». - LE.

Affinitas (relationship). A specie G. tonglensis C. B. Clarke culmis altioribus et crassioribus, laminis latioribus et paniculis multispiculatis, a specie G. ischyroneura Steud. antheris longioribus et paniculae ramis sublaevibus differt. From G. tonglensis differs inbeing higher and thicker stems, wider leave-blades and multifloral panicles, from G. ischyroneura - longer anthers and almost smooth panicle branches.

China (prov. Yunnan). It is described from China. 2 ? =?

This name has not previously been published in accordance with the International Botanical Code. It was initially described in Chinese, and then at two different ranks; bot publications break the rules.

27. G.tonglensis With. ?. Clarke, 1876, Journ. Linn. Soc. London (Bot.) 15 : 119. - ? G. kashmirensis Kelso, 1935. - M. ???????????

SW. China, N India, N. Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Afghanistan. It is described from N. India. 2 ? =?

There is an authentic sample in LE of this species: « Mahalderam, Darjeeling, 30 V 1884, With. ?. Clarke ». We have not seen the type of G. kashmirensis but, according to Stewart (1967, The grasses of Kashmir. Bull. Bot. Surv. India, 9, 14: ? 114-133), it is typical sample G. tonglensis.

28. G. caspia Trin., 1836, Bull. Sci. Acad. Sci. Petersb. 1 : 68. - M. the Caspian

Caucasus (Talysh ) , N. Iran. It is described fromTalysh. 2 ? =?

Very rare hyrkanian species. From ? alish , except for type, in Herbariums LE there are only our gatherings: « Lenkoran region, small swamp among a wood to the north of highway Lenkoran - Lerik, 29 VII 1963, N 1035, N.Tsvelyov ».

29. G. lazistanica Holub ex Tzvel. sp. nov. G. arundinacea auct. non Kunth: Kit Tan, 1985, 1. c.: 536, p. p. - Culmi 70-130 cm alti, sat crassi, erecti. Laminae 4-9 mm lt., paulo canescentes, sublaeves, rigide. Ligulae 3-5 mm long., integrae. Paniculae 20-35 cm lg., angustae et laxae, pallide roseo-violaceae, multispiculatae, ramis sublaevibus. Spiculae 4-6 mm long., 5-7-florae. Glumae 1.3-1.7 et 1.7-2.2 mm long., acutiusculae. Lemmata 2.3-2.7 mm long., ovata, acutiuscula, sublaevia. Paleae lemmatis subaequales, carinis valde curvatis. Antherae 0.6-0.7 mm long. - Stems 70-130 cm lg, rather thick, upright. A leave blades 4-9 mm ., a little bit grayish, almost smooth, rigid. Ligule 3-5 mm long. Panicles 20-35 cm lg., narrow and friable, pale-mauve, multifloret, with almost smooth branches. Spikelets 4-6 mm long., with 5-7 florets. Glumes 1.3-1.7 and 1.7-2.2 mm long., a bit sharp. Lemmae 2.3-2.7 mm long., ovoid, a bit sharp, almost smooth. Palea almost equal to lemma, with strongly bent keels. Anthers 0.6-0.7 mm long. - ?. ???????????? .

Typus: « ?. Balansa, Plantes D Orient, 1866, N 1554, Khabakhor (Lazistan), vers 1800 m alt. 30 VII 1866 ». - LE, cum 2 isotypis.

Affmitas (relationship). A specie proxima - G. caspia Trin. culmis altioribus, laminis rigidioribus et canescenti-viridibus, lemmatis paulo longioribus et roseo-violaceis differt. G. caspia differs from the closest species in higher stems, more rigid and glaucous leave blades and a little longer and mauve lemmae.

Turkey (Lasistan ) . It is described from Lasistan 2 ? =?

This species has been planned for the description in Herbariums LE by the author of revision for « Flora Europaea » - J.Golubom (J. Holub), who, unfortunately, has not had time to describe it.

Subgen. 2. Glyceria. - Typus: G.fluitans (L). R. Br.

Sect. 6. Leptorhiza Tzvel., 1971, Novosti sistematiki visshih rasteniy. 8 : 82. Typus: G. leptorhiza (Maxim.) Kom.

30. G. borealis (Nash) Batch., 1900, Proc. Manchester Inst. Arts Sci. 1 : 74. - Panicularia borealis Nash, 1897. - M. ?????????? .

N. America (except for Arctic regions, Mexica and a southeast of USA). It is described from the USA (state Maine). 2 ? = 20 (Church, 1942; Bowden, 1960).

31. G. chinensis Keng ex Z. L. Wu, 1992, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 30, 2 : 174; Keng, 1959,1. with: 251, fig. 205, descr. sin. - M. Chinese.

China (the south and the east). It is described from ??? . China. 2 ? =?

32. G formosensis Ohwi, 1933, Acta Phytotax. et Geobot. (Kyoto) 2 : 164. - M. Taiwan.

Taiwan. It is described from Taiwan, isotypus (« Formosa: Nokogoe in Karenkocho, J Ohwi N3193 ») in LE. 2n =?

33. G leptorhiza (Maxim.) Kom., 1901, Trudy Peterburg. Botanich. sada, 20 : 307. - G.fluitans var.? leptorhiza Maxim. 1859. - M. ???????????????? .

Russia (Amur basin), China (Amur basin). It is described from Amur. 2 ? = 20 ( ??????????? , ????????? , 1973).

Sect. 7. Glyceria. Typus: G.fluitans (L). R. Br.

34. G depauperata Ohwi, 1931, Bot. Mag. Tokyo, 45 : 381. - G. leptorhiza subsp. depauperata (Ohwi) Koyama, 1987. - M. impoverished.

Russia (Kuriles: Iturup), Japan. (Island Honshu) is described from Japan. 2n = 20 (Tateoka, 1954; ??????????? , ????????? , 1973).

35. G. leptostachya Buckl., 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 14 : 95. - M.uzkokolosiy.

W. Canada, the West the USA. It is described from the USA (state Oregon). 2n = 40 (Church 1942).

36. G. arkansana Fern., 1929, Rhodora, 31 : 49. - G. septentrionalis var. arkansana (Fern.) Steyerm. et Kucera, 1961. - M. ???????????? .

The USA (Arkansas, Louisiana, Missouri and Texas). It is described from Arkansas. 2 ? =?

37. G. davyi (Merr.) Tzvel. comb. nov. Panicularia davyi Merr., 1902, Rhodora, 4 : 145. - G. leptostachya auct. non Buckn.: Chase, 1950, in Hitchc, Manual Grass. Unit. Stat., ed. 2 : 83, p. p.; Soreng et al., 2003,1. c.: 474. - M. ???? .

Native to the United States (California). It is described from California ("Sonoma Co., marsh near Guemeville, 21 VII 1899, J. Burtt-Davy N 6005"). 2n =?

A sample available in LE ("Plants of California, Sonoma Co., near Sonoma, N 5606, 25 V 1902, A. Heller"), demonstrates that this species differs from G. leptostachya in having culms 80-110 cm tall that are thicker, ascending, and form adventitious roots at the nodes, glaucous leaves that are more rigid thatn those ofG. leptostachya, and lemmas that are densely covered with warty prickles.

38. G. texana Tzvel. sp. nov . Culmi 50-130 cm alti, sat crassi. Laminae 3-8 mm lt., virides, supra valde scabrae. Ligulae 4-7 mm long., vulgo laceratae. Paniculae 25-40 cm lg., angustae, ramis distantibus scabris. Spiculae 15-25 mm long., 7-15-florae, subcylindricae, pallide virides. Glumae 2-2.3 et 3-3.7 mm long. Lemmata 3.5-4.2 mm long., dense scabra aculeolis tuberculiformibus. Paleae carinis anguste alatis. Antherae 0.9 - 1.2 mm long.

Culms 50-130 cm tall., quite thick. Leave blades 3-8 mm wide., green, margins strongly scabrous. Ligules 4 -7 mm long., usually broken off. Panicles 25-40 cm long, narrow, with spreading, scabrous branches. Spikelets 15-25 mm long., with 7-15 florets, almost cylindrical, pale-green. Glumes 2-2.3 and 3-3.7 mm long. Lemmas 3.5-4.2 mm long., scabrous because of numerous warty prickles. Palea with narrowly winged keels. Anthers 0.9-1.2 mm long. ?. Texas.

Typus: "Eastern Texas, ponds Hempstead, 2 VI 1872, N 783, E. Hall".- LE.

The species is similar to G. arkansana but differs in having longer lemmas and in being densely covered with tubercle-based prickles and in having anthers 0.9-1.2 (rather than 0.4-0.6) mm long.

I consider that this taxon merits recognition as a species.

39. G. nemoralis (Uechtr.) Uechtr. et Koern., 1866. Bot. Zeit. 24, 16 : 121. - G.plcata var. nemoralis Uechtr., 1863. - M. ????????? .

E Europe (in the north up to Lithuania, the Novgorod and Moscow areas, in the south, excluding its SE part and Crimea), Middle Europe, Balkan peninsula, Caucasus, NW. Iran. It is described from Slovakia. 2 ? = 20 (many authors).

The possible isotypus or topotypusof this species is represented in Herbarium LE « In sylvo-sis... am Trebnitz..., 21 VI 1863, leg. Uechtritz ».

40. G. holubii Tzvel. sp. nov. G. nemoralis auct. non (Uechtr). Uechtr. et Koern.: Kit Tan, 1985,1. c. 537. - Culmi 50-90 cm alti. Laminae 2.5-6 mm lt., sat rigidae, canescenti-virides, utrinque scabrae. Vaginae in parte superiore scabrae. Ligulae 3.5-7 mm long., vulgo laceratae. Paniculae angustae et longae, 15-26 cm lg., multispicula-tae, ramis laevibus, saepe distantibus. Spiculae 8-14 mm long., 5-10-florae. Glumae 1.3-1.7 et 1.7-2.3 mm long. Lemmata 2.6-3.3 mm long., pallide-rosea, paulo scabriuscula, nervis intermediis minus evolutis et longe non attingentibus ad lemmatis apicem, apice distincte attenuata et 0.5-0.7 mm membranacea. Paleae lemmatis subaequales, carinis anguste alatis. Antherae 0.9-1.1 mm long. Stems 50-90 cm lg. Leave bladdes 2.5-6 mm wide, quite scabrous, glaucous, rigid, scabrous from both sides. Sheathes in its upper part scabrous. Ligule 3.5-7 mm long., usually broken off. Panicles narrow and long, 15-26 cm lg., with numerous spikelets, with smooth, frequently spreaded branches. Spikelets 8-14 mm long., with 5-10 florets. Glumes 1.3-1.7 and 1.7-2.3 mm long. Lemma 2.6-3.3 mm long., light-mauve, a little bit scabrous, with less prominent and far from being reaching a top of lemma intermediate veins, on its top they are clear tapered (elongated) and on 0.5-0.7 mm membraneous. Palea are almost equal to lemma, across its keels narrow-alar. Anthers 0.9-1.1 mm long. - M.Goluba.

Typus : « Turkey, prov. Tunceli: Ovacik-Hozat, 2000 m, flush in oak scrub, 22 VII 1957, Davis a. Hedge, N 31535 ». - LE.

Affmitas (relationship). A specie proxima - G. nemoralis (Uechtr.) Uechtr. et Koem. lemmatis apice distincte attenuatis et late membranaceis, nee non foliis rigidioribus et an-gustioribus differt. It differs from a close species G. nemoralis in lemmas, being clearly taped (elongated) on its top and widely membranous, and more rigid and narrower leaves.

Species in memoriam botanici czechice excellentis, auctoris elaborationis generis Glyceria in « Flora Europaea » - J. Holub denominata est. - the species is named in memory of outstanding

Czech botany, the author of revision of genus Glyceria in « Flora Europaea » - J.Golub.

Turkey. It is described from Turkey. 2 ? =?

41. G. notata Chevall., 1827, Fl. Envir. Paris, 2, 1 : 174. - G.fluitans subsp. plicata Fries, 1839. - G. plicata (Fries) Fries, 1842.-? G. acuminata Schur, 1866.- G. turcomanica Kom., 1934. - G. acutiuscula H. Scholz, 1995. - M. noticed, m. folded.

Almost throughout Europe, (except for Arctic regions), W. Siberia, (except for Arctic regions),SW. Asia (including Caucasus), Central Asia, W. China; established in the south of E. Siberia and the Far East, in Canada and the USA, NW Africa, Central and South America, New Zealand. It is described from France (a vicinity of Paris). 2 ? = 40 (many authors).

We could not distinguish from this species G. turcomanica and G. acutiuscula. described from Kopet Dagh and Caucasus. In Herbariums LE there is a type of the first of these species and a sample of the second one(« West. Ciscaucasia, a bottom of sluggy on a calcareous plateau near biological research station Kamyshanova poliana, 15 IX 1994, N.Tsvelyov »), collected simultaneously and in the same place, as type of G. acutiuscula.

42. G. declinata Breb., 1859, Fl. Normand., ed. 3 : 354 - G. cookei Swallen, 1941. - G. plicata subsp. declinata (Breb.) Weeda, 1983. - G.fluitans subsp. declinata (Breb.) O. de Bolos, Masall. et Vigo, 1988. - M. inclined.

Belarus (vicinity of Slutsk), is registered in Latvia and Lithuania, Athlantic and Middle Europe, S of Fennoscandia, established in NW Africa, Australia, New Zealand, the USA, on Hawaiian islands (« Maui: Haleacala Crater, 2000 m, A. Hitchcock, N 14996 » - LE). It is described from France (Normandy). 2 ? = 20 (many authors).

43. G. occidentalis (Piper) J. ?. Nels., 1919, Torreya, 19 : 224. -Panicularia occidental Piper, 1915. - M. western.

SW. Canada, NW of USA. It is described from Canada (vicinity of Vancouver). 2 ? = 40 (Church, 1942).

44. G. septentrionalis Hitchc, 1906, Rhodora, 8 : 211. - M. northern. NE Canada, Eastern half of USA. It is described from the USA (New Jersey). 2 ? = 40 (Church, 1942).

45. G. infirma Ohwi, 1931, 1.c.: 383. - ?. fragile. Japan. It is described from Japan (a vicinity of Tokyo). 2 ? =?

We have not seen the samples of this species but, apparently, it is close to G. septentrionalis and G. declinata.

46. G. spicata (Biv.) Guss., 1845, Fl. Sic. Syn. 2 : 784. -Poa spicata Biv., 1838. - Glyceria fluitans subsp. spicata (Biv.) Husnot, 1899. - M. eared.

Pirenean, Appenin and the Balkan peninsulas, Corsica and Sicily, Algeria (« Marais pres de L'Arach, VI 1837, N. Bove » - LE). - It is described from Sicily. 2n =?

47. G. saltensis Sulekic et Rugolo de Agrasar, 1998, Darwiniana, 35, 1-4 : 155. - M. ?????????? . NW Argentina. It is described from Argentina. 2 ? =?

Differs from the next species in larger (1.2-1.5 mm long.) anthers.

48. G. multiflora Steud., 1854, 1. c.: 285. - G.fluitans var. stricta Desv. 1854.-M. multifloral.

Chile, Argentina, Uruguay. It is described from Chile. 2 ? =?

There is a probable isotype of this species in LE: « Herb. Fischer, Chili ».

49. G.fluitans (L). R. Br., 1810, Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 1 : 179. -Festuca fluitans L., 1753. - Glyceria integra Dumort., 1823.-? G. denticulata Dumort., 1823. - G.flui - tans subsp. poiformis Fries, 1839. - M. floating.

Almost all Europe, except for Arctic regions and Crimea, W. Caucasus, Turkey, established in Siberia, in the east of the USA and Canada, in Chile and Argentina, Australia and New Zealand. It is described from Europe. 2 ? = 40 (many authors).

50. G. insularis With. ?. Hubb., 1981, Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Bot.) 8, 4 : 394. - M. island.

Tristan da Cunha islands. It is described from these islands. 2 ? =?

51. G. australis With. ?. Hubb., 1935, Kew Bull. 1934 : 450. - ?. Australian.

SE Australia and Tasmania. It is described from Australia. 2 ? =?

Sect. 8. Hemibromus (Steud.) Tzvel. comb, et stat. nov . - Hemibromus Steud., 1854. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 : 317. That pus: G.japonica Steud.

52. G. japonica (Steud.) Miq., 1866, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 2 : 281. -Hemibromus japonicus Steud., 1854. - Glyceria acutiflora auct. non Torr.: Ohwi, 1965, Fl. Japan: 166. - M. Japanese.

Japan, peninsula Korea (island Chejudo, former Quelpart). It is described from Japan. 2 ? = 20 (Tateoka, 1954).

It differ from American G. acutiflora in more small (0.8-1.2, instead of 1.5-2.2 mm gl.) anthers, lower and more thin stalks, and in chromosomal number as well.

53. G. potaninii Tzvel., sp. nov. - G. acutiflora auct., non Torr.: Keng, 1959,1. c.: 252, fig. 206. - Culmi 40-80 cm alti, innovationibus in parte inferiore adscendentibus vel repentibus, prope basin 2.5-5 mm crassis. Laminae 3-5 mm lt., planae, supra paulo canescentes et sublaeves. Ligulae 3-6 mm long. Paniculae angustae, vulgo interruptae, ramis brevissimis sublaevibus. Spiculae 2-3.5 cm lg., floribus 7-13, valde distantibus. Glumae 2.3-3 et 4-5 mm long. Lemmata 7 - 8.5 mm long., sublaevia, nervis ad lem-matis basin exsertis. Paleae lemmatis 1-1.5 mm longiores, apice bifidae, carinis an-gustissime alatis. Antherae 1-1.2 mm long. - Stems 40-80 cm lg, with innovation ascending or creeping at their lower part, near the basis 2.5-5 mm thick. Leave blades 3-5 mm lt., flat (plane), from upper side a little bit grayish and almost smooth. Ligule 3-6 mm long. Panicle narrow, usually faltering(interrupting?), with very short, almost smooth branches. Spikelets 2-3.5 mm long., with 7-13 strongly separated florets. Glumes 2.3-3 and 4-5 mm long. Lemma 7-8.5 mm long., almost smooth, with veins, prominent near the basis. Palea 1-1.5 mm is longer than lemma, two-separate on the top, with very narrow-alar keel. Anthers 1-1.2 mm ?? . - M.Potanin.

Typus: « China, prov. Sichuan, between Pei-zhan and Ya-zhou, in stagnat water, 27 III 1893, G.N.Potanin » - LE.

Affinitas (relationship). A speciebus proximis - G. acutiflora Torr. et G. japonica (Steud.) Miq. foliorum laminis supra sublaevibus (non valde scabris) differt, nec non a specie G.japonica culmis crassioribus, caespites non formantibus, a specie G. acutiflora antheris brevioribus differt. It differs from close species - G. acutijlora and G. japonica in almost smooth (instead of being strongly scabrous)on upper (adaxial) side leave blades and also from G.japonica it differs in stems being thicker, not forming tussock, and from G. acutiflora in shorter anthers.

Species in memoriam collectoris Asiae Centralis investigatoris excellentis G. N. Potaninii denominata est.

The species is named in memory of its collector - the oustanding scientist and the traveller across the Central Asia G.N.Potanin.

China (southeast). It is described from China. 2 ? =?

54. G. acutiflora Torr., 1823, Fl. North. Middle Unit. Stat. 1 : 104. - M. ????????????? .

Southeastern Canada, northeastern USA. Described from the USA (NE. states). 2 n = 40 (Church).

Subgen. 3. Porrotheranthe (Steud.) Tzvel. comb. et stat. nov . Porrotheranthe Steud., 1854, 1.c.: 287. Typus: G. drummondii (Steud). With. ?. Hubb.

55. G. drummondii (Steud). With E. Hubb., 1935, 1. with 450. - Porrotheranthe drummondii Steud., 1854. - M. ????????? .

SW. Australia. It is described from Australia. 2 n =?

The isotype of this very unusual species (« Australia, ad fl. Cygnorum, J. Drummond, N 390 ») is present in LE. It is small (20-35 cm tall) perennial (but with a short life cycle), floats on water, has stolons, panicles with few, almost auriculate spikelets. The glumes are almost completely absent.

INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDS

1. G. X digenea Domin, 1943, Acta Bot. Bohem. 14 : 163 = G.fluitans X G. maxima.

2. G. X gatianensis Bowden, 1960, Canad. Journ. Bot. 38 : 126 = G. melicaria X X G. striata. 2n = 30 (Bowden, 1960).

3. G. X hulteniana A. Love, 1954, Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 48, 1:218 = G. grandis X X? G. pulchella. G. grandis var. komarovii Kelso, 1934, Rhodora, 36 : 266. 2n = 40 (A. Love, 1954).

4. G. X ottawensis Bowden, 1960, 1. with: 127 = G. canadensis X G. striata. 2n = 42 (Bowden, 1960).

5. G. X orientalis Kom., 1914, Feddes Repert. 13 : 162 = G. lithuanica X G. alnaste-retum.

6. G. X pedicillata Towns., 1853, Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh, 4 : 21. = G.fluitans X G. notata. quite common in Europe hybrid with 2 ? = 40. Has narrow, but long sterile spikelets with not breaking up on one-floralparts of rachilla.

7. G. X tokitana Masumura, 1989, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. (Kyoto), 40,5-6:165. = = G. ischyroneura X G leptolepis. 2n = 30.

Key to the taxa of GLYCERIA

1. Palea veins extending into two teeth, exceeding the lemmas by 0.8-2.5 mm; lemmas 6-9 mm long...............2

1. Palea veins usually not extended into teeth of, if forming teeth, these not exceeding the lemmas or exceeding them by less than 0.7 mm ...............5

2. Almost all spikelets sessile, auriculate, with few florets; inflorescence racemose; lower glumes 0.5-1.5 mm long, upper glumes 1-2 mm long; culms 20-35 cm tall, thing; leaves 1-3 mm wide; Australia...............G. drummondii

2. Spikelets pedicellate, with many florets; inflorescence a narrow panicle; glumes much larger ..............3

3. Anthers 1.5-2.2 mm long; culms 50-100 cm tall, quite thick and usually ascending at the base; leaves 3-6 mm wide; eastern North America..............54. G. acutiflora

3. Anthers 0.8-1.2 mm long..............4

4. Culms 30-60 cm tall, bases 1.5-2.5 mm thick, frequently clumped; leaves 1.5-3.5 mm wide, adaxial (upper) surfaces scabrous over the veins; Japan ...... 52. G.japonica

4. Culms 40-80 cm tall, bases 2.5-5 mm thick, usually not clumped; leaves 3-5 mm wide, adaxial (upper) surface almost smooth; southeastern China..............53. G. potaninii

5. All or almost all spikelets longer than 8 mm, with 6-15 florets; panicles usually long, but narrow and frequently interrupted; branches short; ligules very thin, frequently broken off or crumpled at the tip, usually more than 2.5 mm long .............. 6

5. All or almost all spikelets shorter than 8 mm, with 3-7 (9)florets; panicles usually lax and open, sometimes compressed and dense; ligules thicker, usually unbroken , frequently shorter than 3 mm ..............27

6. Anthers 0.5-0.8 mm long ..............7

6. Anthers longer than 0.8 mm ..............14

7. Sheaths are strongly scabrous; ligules 1.3-2 mm long, unbroken; panicles 10-20 mm long, lax, branches almost smooth; lemmas 3.6-4.2 mm long, slightly scabrous only over the veins; palea keels not winged ............................................................ 32. G.formosensis.

7. Sheaths smooth ..............8

8. Lemmas 3.7-4.5 mm long ..............9

8. Lemmas 2.6-3.7 mm long ..............10

9. Leaves 1.5-3 mm wide; culms 30-60 cm tall; lemmas 4-4.3 mm long, slightly scabrous over the veins, smooth elsewhere; palea keels not winged; glumes 1.7-2.2 and 2.7-3.2 mm long; Eastern China ..............31. G. chinensis

9. Leaves 4-12 mm wide; culms 50-80 cm tall; lemmas 3.7-4.5 mm long, scabrous over the whole surface; palea keels arrowly winged; glumes 2-3.5 and 3-4.5 mm long southern South America ..............48. G. muhiflora

10. Palea keels not winged; lemmas 3.6-4.2 mm long, slightly glabrous over the veins, smooth elsewhere, tips with a wide membranous margin; NOrth America ..............30. G. borealis

10. P alea keels narrowly winged; lemmas scabrous throughout, tips with a narrow membranous margin ..............11

11.Upper glumes 1.8-2.5 mm long..............12

11. Upper glumes 2.6-3.3 mm long; North America ..............3

12. Panicle branches almost smooth; panicles 10-25 cm long; leaves 2-4 mm wide; Eastern Asia..............34. G. depauperata

12. Panicle branches scabrous; panicles 20-40 cm long; leaves 3-8 mm wide; western North America..............35. G. leptostachya.

13. Lemma covered with thin hairlike prickles; lower glumes 2-2.5 mm long; upper glumes 2.7-3.3 mm long; panicle branches slightly scabrous ..............36. G. arkansana

13. Lemmas covered warty prickles; lower glumes 1.3-1.6 mm long; upper glumes 2.6-3.2 mm long; panicle branches strongly scabrous ..............37. G. davyi

14. Lemma veins on both sides of midvein weakly developed, extending only 2/3 lengths of the lemma; lemmas 2.6-3.6 mm long, slightly scabrous over the veins, smooth elsewhere; anthers 0.8-1.1 mm long; ligules usually broken off on narrow parts ..............15

14. Lemma veins on both sides of midvein as well developed as the adjacent veins..............16

15. Lemmas usually greenish, apices with a membranous border about 0.2 mm wide; lower glumes 2-2.5 mm long; upper glumes 2.7-3.2 mm long; Europe, Caucasus, northwestern Iran..............9. G. nemoralis

15. Lemmas usually purplish, apices with a membranous border 0.5-0.7 mm wide; glumes 1.3-1.7 and 1.7-2.3 mm long; northern Turkey ..............40. G. holubii

16. Anthers1.6-3 mm long; lemmas 4.5-10 mm long ..............17

16. Anthers up to 1.6 mm long..............18

17. Anthers 1.6-2.5 mm long; lemmas 4.5-7 mm long; rachillas straight when dry; palea gradually narrowed to the tip; Europe; introduced in other countries ..............49 . G.fluitans.

17. Anthers 2.5-3 mm long; lemma 6-10 mm long; rachillas zigzag when dry; paleas abruptly narrowed to the elongate tip; Australia and Tasmania ..............51. G. australis.

18. Palea tips in most florets exceeding the tip of the lemma by 0.2-0.6 mm exceed the tops of lemma..............19

18. Palea tip of all, rarely only the majority, of florets not exceeding the lemma..............21

19. Anthers 1.3-1.6 mm long; lemmas 3.5-4.3 mm long, tips unlobed; eastern North America..............G. septentrionalis

19. Anthers 0.8-1 mm long..............20

20. Lemmas 4-4.6 mm long, the tip usually somewhat obtuse, three-lobed; Europe; introduced other countries [invasive in vernal pools of California] ..............42. G. declinata

20. Lemmas 4.5-5 mm long, usually not lobed; Japan..............45. G. injirma

21. Palea keels not winged; lemmas 3-3.8 mm long, slightly scabrous over the veins, smooth elsewhere; a nthers 1.2-1.6 mm long; culms 20-50 cm tall; leaves 1.5-3 mm wide; rhizomes very thin; eastern Asia..............G. leptorhiza

21. Palea keels narrowly winged; lemmas 3.5-4.8 mm long, strongly scabrous ..............22

22. Panicles 30-50 cm long, branches scabrous; anthers 0.9-1.3 mm long; culms 50-130 cm tall; leaves 3-12 mm wide; North America ..............23

22. Panicle branches smooth or almost smooth..............24

23. Lemmas 3.5-4.2 mm long, covered with warty-shaped prickles; lower glumes 2-2.3 mm long; upper glumes 3-3.7 mm long ..............38 G. texana.

23. Lemmas 4-4.8 mm long, covered with hair-like prickles; lower glumes 1.2-1.5 mm log; upper glumes 2-2.5 mm long ..............43. G. occidentalis

24. Lower glumes 2.6-7.5 mm long; upper glumes 4.5-8 mm long..............25

24. Lower glumes 1.2-2.6 mm long; upper glumes 1.7-4.5 mm long ..............26

25. Lemmas 3.7-5 mm long; anthers 1.2-1.5 mm long; panicles 25-50 cm long; leaves 2.5-6 mm wide; southern South America ..............47. G saltensis.

25. Lemmas 6-.7.5 mm long; anthers 1.3-1.8 mm long; panicles 12-25 cm long; leaves 4-10 mm wide; Tristan da Cunha islands ..............50. G. insularis.

26. Lemmas 3.2-4.3 mm long; lower glumes 1.2-2.2 long; upper glumes 1.7-3.5 mm long; anthers 0.8-1.2 mm long; lateral spikelets on long pedicels; temperate warm areas of Eurasia; introduced in other countries .............. 41. G. notata

26. Lemmas 4.5-6 mm long; lower glumes 2-2.6 mm long; upper glumes 3-3.6 mm long; anthers 1.1-1.6 mm long; lateral spikelets almost sessile; southern Europe, Northern Africa ..............46. G. spicala.

27. Lemmas oblong or elliptic, narrowed distally; paleas oblong or lanceolate, keels slightly curved; panicles open, branches widely divergent at anthesis ..............28

27. Lemmas ovoid, usually narrowed from near midlength to the tip ; paleas ovoid to almost round, keels arcuate ; panicles wide, with widely divergent branches to narrow with strongly ascending branched .............. 39

28. Lemmaa 3.7-5.2 mm long; blades rigid, 2-6 mm wide; panicle branches scabrous; culms 60-120 cm long ..............29

28. Lemmas shorter than 3.6 mm..............30

29. Lower glumes 2.5-3.4 mm long; upper glumes 3-4.5 mm long; anthers 1.3-2 mm long; northern Asia ..............G. spiculosa

29. Glumes almost equal, 3.8-5.2 mm long; anthers 0.9-1.2 mm long; northeastern China ..............9 . G. longiglumis

30. Stamens 2; anthers 0.5-0.7 mm long; culms 50-150 cm long ..............31

30. Stamens 3; anthers frequently longer than 0.7 mm ..............32

31. Ligules more than 1 mm long; lemmas 2.5-3.6 mm long; panicle branches usually slightly scabrous; northern Asia, northeastern Europe, northwestern Caucasus, northern Turkey ..............11. G. lithuanica

31. Ligules 0.3-0.8 mm long; lemmas 2.8-4 mm long; panicle branches usually strongly scabrous ; eastern Asia ..............12. G. leptolepis.

32. Lemmaa 2.8-3.6 mm long, veins prominent, prickles large, visible without magnification,; lower glumes 2-2.7 mm long; upper glumes 2.5-3.5 mm long; panicles rather dense, branches frequently (but it is far from being always!) scabrous; anthers 1.2-2 mm long; Europe, western Siberia, western Caucasus , Turkey; introduced in Eastern Canada and New Zealand ..............7. G. maxima

32. Lemmas with slightly prominent veins with very small prickles, requiring significant magnification for viewing; glumes and anthers usually smaller ..............33

33. Lemmas 3.3-3.7 mm long; lower glumes 1.8-2.5 mm long; upper glumes 2.3-3.5 mm long; anthers 0.9-1.2 mm long; panicle branches almost smooth; leaves 3-9 mm wide; eastern Asia ..............10. G. alnasteretum

33. Lemmas shorter than 3.3 mm ..............34

34. Lower glumes 2.3-2.7 mm long; upper glumes 2.8-3.2 mm long; lemmas 2.7-3.2 mm long; panicle branches strongly scabrous; eastern Asia ..............4. G. effusa.

34. Lower glumes 1.2-2.2 mm long; upper glumes 1.3-2.6 mm long ..............35

35. Culms rather thin, 50-100 cm tall; panicles 10-25 cm long, with less numerous branches, spikelets usually less numerous on the branches, usually 2-4, branches scabrous; anthers 0.9-1 mm long; lower glumes 1.8-2.2 mm long; upper glumes 2.3-2.6 mm long; lemmas 2.5-3.2 mm long; northwestern North America ..............2. G. pulchella

35. Culms thicker, 70-150 cm tall; panicles usually 20-40 cm long , with numerous, smooth or slightly scabrous branches ..............36

36. Anthers 0.7-0.9 mm long; lemmas 1.8-2.5 mm long; lower glumes 1.2-1.7 mm long; upper glumes 1.6-2.3 mm long; North America, introduced in Europe, including the southern part of Karelia .............. 1. G. grandis

36. Anthers 0.9-1.5 mm long; lemmas 2.2-3.3 mm long ..............37

37. Panicles ellipsoid outline, branches rather short compared to the panicle length, particularly at the lower nodes, not bearing many spikelets; spikelets usually 6-8 mm long, with 5-9florets; leaves 2.2-7 mm wide; northeastern Asia ..............5. G. amurensis

37. Panicles more or less pyramidal in outline, with long, branches, usually bearing many spikelets; spikelets with 3-7 florets ..............38

38. Lemmas 2.2-2.8 mm long; lower glumes 1.5-2 mm long; upper glumes 1.8-2.5 mm long; anthers 0.9-1.2 mm long; northern Asia, mid-Urals..............3. G. triflora

38. Lemmas 2.5-3.2 mm long; lower glumes 0.8-1.7 mm long; upper glumes 1.3-2.2 mm long; anthers 1-1.5 mm long; southern part of eastern Europe, Caucasus, Balkan peninsula, Romania ..............6 . G. arundinacea

39. Paleas a little bit elongated distally, almost equal on length to the lemmas; stamens 3; anthers 0.5-1.2 mm long; panicles usually narrow with short branches; Asia ..............40

39. Palea are not elongated on its top, frequently shorter than lemma. Stamens 2 or 3, with anthers 0.3-0.7 mm long. Plants of America, but will be invasive in Europe ..............46

40. Lemmas 3.2-3.5 mm long; glumes 1.7-2.2 and 2.3-3 mm long; paleas slightly bent over the keels; culms 50-100 cm tall, ascending form the 4-5 mm bases; blades 3-6 mm wide; Kuriles ..............24. G. voroschilovii.

40. Lemmas 2-3.2 mm long ..............41.

41. Lemmas 2-2.3 mm long; glumes 0.5-1 and 1-1.6 mm long; anthers 0.5-0.6 mm long; culms 40-80 cm tall; blades 3.5-6 mm wide; Caucasus ( ? alysh) , N.Iran ..............28. G. caspia.

41. Lemmas 2.3-3.2 mm long ..............42.

42. Anthers 0.9-1.2 mm long; lemmas 2.9-3.2 mm long; glumes 1-1.5 and 1.8-2.3 mm long; culms 50-150 cm tall; blades 3-7 mm wide; Southeast China ..............26. G. ovatiflora.

42. Anthers 0.5-0.8 mm long ..............43.

43. Culms 70-150 cm tall; blades 4-10 mm wide ..............44.

43. Stems 40-60 cm tall; blades 1.5-4 mm wide; lemmas 2.5- ? mm long ..............45.

44. Panicles usually greenish, 30-50 cm long, narrow; spikelets with 6-9 florets, 6-8 mm long; lemmas 2.5- ? mm long;. Japan ..............23. G. ischyroneura.

44. Panicles usually purple, 20-35 cm long, rather narrow; spikelets with 5-7 florets, 4-6 mm long; lemmas 2.3-2.7 mm long; North Turkey ..............29. G. lazistanica.

45. Panicle branches more or less scabrous; glumes 0.5-1.5 and 1.3-1.8 mm long; anthers 0.5-0.7 mm long; South Kuriles, Japan, Korea ..............25. G. probatovae.

45. Panicle branches smooth; glumes 1.2-1.5 and 1.8-2.5 mm long; anthers 0.7-0.8 mm long. Himalayas and mountains of Afghanistan ..............27. G. tonglensis.

46. Panicles more or less contracted, with short branches; eastern North America ..............47.

46. Panicles during widely divergent at anthesis; branches long ..............48.

47. Lemmas 3-3.5 mm long; glumes 1.4-1.6 and 1.8-2.2 mm long; anthers 0.6-0.7 mm long; panicles 5-15 cm long, narrow-elliptic, dense and with many spikelets, branches almost smooth ..............21. G. obtusa.

47. Lemmas 2-2.5 mm long; glumes 1-1.5 and 1.8-2.3 mm long; anthers 0.5-0.6 mm long; panicles narrow and friable, 15-25 cm long; panicle branches scabrous ................. 22. G. melicaria.

48. Panicle branches smooth; lemmas 2.3-2.5 mm long; anthers 0.4-0.6 mm long; glumes 1.4-1.5 and 1.4-1.7 mm long; culms 70-100 cm tall; Colombia.................... 16. G. colombiana.

48. Panicle branches strongly scabrous because of prickles ..............49.

49. Lemmas with very slightly prominent veins, almost smooth; culms 50-200 cm tall; blades 3-8 mm wide; eastern North America ..............50.

49. Lemmas with prominent scabrous veins ..............51.

50. Panicles wide, lax, frequently with drooping branches; glumes 1.7-2.2 and 2.7-3.2 mm long ..............18. G. canadensis.

50. Panicles less lax, but with more numerous and smaller spikelets; glumes 1 .4-1.7 and 1.8-2. mm long ..............25 . G.laxa.

51. Lemmas 2.3-2.7 mm long; culms 100-200 cm tall; ligules 0.7-1.2 mm long; blades 5-10 mm wide; panicles 20-30 cm long; eastern United States..............20. G. nubigena.

51. Lemmas 1.3-2.3 mm long; ligules 1- ? mm long ..............52.

52. Blades 6-12 mm wide; culms 80-120 cm tall; lemmas 1.5-2 mm long; anthers 0.6-0.7 mm long; glumes 0.8-1.3 and 1.2-1.6 mm long; western North America ..............17. G. elata.

52 Blades 2-6 mm wide; culms 40-120 c m tall ..............53.

53. Lemmas 1.9-2.3 mm long; a nthers 0.5-0.7 mm long; Mexico, Antilles Islands ..............15. G. mexicana

53. Lemmas 1.3-2 mm long; anthers 0.3-0.5 mm long; North America ..............54

54. Panicles wide, lax, with long, thin branches; culms 50-120 cm tall; leaves quite soft, green; spikelets usually greenish; lemmas 1.3-1.7 mm long ..............13. G. striata.

54. Panicles less lax, with shorter branches,usually 2-3 per node; culms 40-80 cm tall; leaves more rigid, adaxial surface glaucous; spikelets usually purple; lemmas 1.6-2 mm long ..............14. G. neogaea.

Excluded species

1. G. airoides (Koel.) Reichenb., 1829 = Catabrosa aquatica (L). P. Beauv.

2. G. airoides (Nutt.) Fries, 1841 = Puccinellia nuttaliana (Schult.) Hitchc.

3. G. albidiflora De Wild., 1924 = Glycine albidiflora De Wild, (a mistake in « Index Kewensis »).

4. G airoides Steud., 1854 = Eragrostis multicaulis Steud.

5. G. algida (Soland.) Hartm., 1849 = Phippsia algida (Soland.) R. Br.

6. G. angustata (R. Br.) Fries, 1843 = Puccinellia angustata (R. Br.) Rand, et Redf.

7. G. antarctica Speg., 1896 = Puccinellia magellanica (Hook, f.) Parodi.

8. G aquatica (L). J. et WITH Presl, 1819 = Catabrosa aquatica (L.) P. Beauv.

9. G. arctica Hook., 1840 = Puccinellia arctica (Hook.) Fern, et Weath.

10. G arundinacea (Roem. et Schult.) Fries, 1839 = Scolochloa festucacea (Willd.) Link.

11. G. australasiaca Steud. = Eragrostis australasiaca (Steud). WITH. ?. Hubb.

12. G. X baltica Lindeb., 1898 = Puccinellia maritima (Huds.) Pari. X P. capillaris (Liljebl.) Jansen.

13. G. baumgarteniana Schur, 1866 =? Bromopsis sp.

14. G. borreri (Bab.) Smith et Sowerby, 1843 = Puccinellia fasciculata (Torr.) Bickn.

15. G. brevifolia Schult., 1824 = Triplasis purpurea (Walt.) Chapm.

16. G. bulbosa Buckl., 1862 =Melica geyeri Munro.

17. G californica Beetle, 1946 = Torreyochloa pauciflora (J. Presl) Church.

18. G. canbyi Scribn., 1883 = Poa secunda WITH Presl.

19. G. capillaris (Liljebl.) Wahl., 1820 = Puccinellia capillaris (Liljebl.) Jansen.

20. G. catabrosa Klatt et Richt, 1830 = Catabrosa aquatica (L). Beauv.

21. G. conferta Lange , 1877 = Puccinellia capillaris (Liljebl.) Jansen.

22. G. conferta Fries, 1839 = Puccinellia fasciculata (Torr.) Bickn.

23. G. convoluta (Homem.) Fries, 1842 = Puccinellia convoluta (Homem.) Hayek.

24. G. delawarica (Link) Heynh., 1840 = Puccinellia fasciculata (Torr.) Bickn.

25. G. distans (Jacq.) Wahl., 1820 = Puccinellia distorts (L). Pari.

26. G. dusenii Lindeb., 1898 =P. maritima X P. capillaris.

27. G. erecta Hitchc, 1912 = Torreyochloa erecta (Hitchc.) Church.

28. G. expansa Crep., 1866 = Puccinellia sp.

29. G. explanata Lindeb., 1898 = Puccinellia maritima (Huds.) Pari.

30. G.fernaldii (Hitchc.) St. John, 1917 = Torreyochloa fernaldii (Hitchc.) Church.

31. G. festuciformis (Host) Steud., 1854 = Puccinellia festuciformis (Host) Pari.

32. G.flava Scribn. ex Farw., 1904 = Torreyochloa pallida (Torr.) Church.

33. G.fordeana (F. Muell.) Benth., 1978 = Poa fordeana F. Muell.

34. G.foucaudii Coste, 1906 = Puccinellia maritima (Huds.) Pari.

35. G.fuegiana Speg., 1896 = Puccinellia magellanica (Hook, f.) Parodi.

36. G.fulva (Trin.) Fries, 1845 = Arctophila fulva (Trin.) Anderss.

37. G. glaucescens (Phil.) Benth., 1881 = Puccinellia glaucescens (Phil.) Parodi.

38. G. glumaris (Trin.) Griseb., 1852 = Poa eminens C. Presl.

39. G. gracilis Palibin, 1903 = Puccinellia palibinii Sorens.

40. G. gussonii Nym., 1855 =? P. distans (Jacq.) Pari.

41. G. humilis (Bieb.) Heynh., 1840 = Catabrosella humilis (Bieb.) Tzvel.

42. G. intermedia Klinggr., 1848 = Puccinellia capillaris (Liljebl.) Jansen.

43. G. intricata Crep., 1866 = Puccinellia limosa (Schur) Holmb.

44. G. Xjansenii Fourn., 1946 = Puccinellia distans X P. maritima.

45. G. kjellmannii Lange ex Kihlm. et Lundstr., 1882 = Puccinellia vahliana (Licbm.) Scribn. & Merr.

46. G. langeana Berlin, 1884 = Puccinellia langeana (Berlin) Sorens.

47. G. latispicea (F. Muell.) Benth. =? Festuca latispicea F. Muell.

48. G. lemmonii Vasey, 1886 = Puccinellia lemmonii (Vasey) Scribn.

49. G. leptophylla Steud., 1854 = Puccinellia temiifolia (Boiss. et Reut.) Lindb.

50. G. leptostachys Speg., 1896 = Puccinellia biflora (Steud.) Parodi.

51. G. X loliacea (Huds.) Godr., 1844 = X Schedolium loliaceum (Huds.) Holub.

52. G. magellanica (Hook, f.) Benth. = Puccinellia magellanica (Hook, f.) Parodi.

53. G. maritima (Huds.) Wahl., 1820 = Puccinellia maritima (Huds.) Pari.

54. G. micrantha Steud., 1854 = Eragrostis japonica (Thunb.) Trin.

55. G. microtheca Buckl., 1862 = Torreyochloa pauciflora (C. Presl) Church.

56. G. minuta Steud., 1854 = Festuca parvula Kunth.

57. G. minutula Fouc. ex Rouy, 1913 = Puccinellia distans (Jacq.) Pari.

58. G. montana Buckl., 1862 = Puccinellia nuttaliana (Schult.) Hitchc.

59. G. natans Kom., 1914 = Torreyochloa natans (Kom.) Church.

60. G. neesii Steud., 1854 = Puccinellia angusta (Nees) Smith.

61. G. novae-zealandiae Petrie, 1901 = Puccinellia novae-zealandiae (Petrie) Allan et Jansen.

62. G. nutkaensis (C. Presl) Fries, 1843 = Puccinellia nutkaensis (C. Presl) Fern. et Weath.

63. G. ochroleuca (Dumort.) Guss., 1854 = Catabrosa aquatica (L). Beauv.

64. G. of/s » Hitchc, 1934 = Torreyochloa otisii (Hitchc.) Church.

65. G. pallida (Torr.) Trin., 1836 = Torreyochloa pallida (Torr.) Church.

66. G. palustris Lange, 1853 = Puccinellia a/rf/ca (Hook.) Fern. et Weath.

67. G. parlatorei Beguin., 1908 = Puccinellia limosa (Schur) Holmb.

68. G pauciflora C. Presl, 1830 = Torreyochloa paucijlora (C. Presl) Church.

69. G paupercula Holm , 1907 = Puccinellia langeana (Berlin) Sorens.

70. G.pendulina Laest., 1833 = Arctophila fulva (Trin.) Anderss.

71. G. pensylvanica (Spreng.) Heinh., 1840 = Sphenopholis nitida ( Biehl.) Scribn .

72. G. permixta Guss., 1842 = Puccinellia fasciculata (Torr.) Bickn.

73. G. pilosa Steud., 1854 = Eragrostis sp.?

74. G. poaeoides Stapf ex Hook, f., 1897 = Puccinellia stapfiana Stew.

75. G. procumbens (Curtis) Dumort., 1823 = Pseudosclerochloa rupestris (With.) Tzvel.

76. G. pseudo-distans Crep., 1866 = Puccinellia pseudo-distans (Crep.) Jans, et Wacht.

77. G. pumila Vasey, 1888 = Puccinellia pumila (Vasey) Hitchc.

78. G. pungens Pau, 1895 = Puccinellia pungens (Pau) Paunero.

79. G. ramigera (F. Muell.) Benth., 1878 = Poa ramigera F. Muell.

80. G. repanda (Gaud.) Nutt, 1818 = Deschampsia rhenana Gremli

81. G. reptans (Hartm.) Krok., 1899 = Puccinellia phryganodes (Trin.) Scribn. et Merr.

82. G. retroflexa (Curt.) Salmon, 1929 = Puccinellia distans (Jacq.) Pari.

83. G. rigida (L). Smith, 1824 = Scleropoa rigida (L.) Griseb.

84. G. X salina Druce, 1928 = Puccinellia distans X P. maritima.

85. G. salinaria Grecescu, 1909 = Puccinellia sp.?

86. G. scaberrima Nees ex Steud., 1854 = Melica scaberrima (Nees ex Steud.) Hook. f.

87. G. songarica Schrenk, 1841 = Eremopoa songarica (Schrenk) Roshev.

88. G. sphenopus Steud., 1854 = Sphenopus divaricatus (Gouan) Reichenb.

89. G. stricta Buckl., 1863 = Sporobolus asper (Michx.) Kunth.

90. G. stricta Hook, f., 1853 = Puccinellia stricta (Hook, f.) WITH H. Blom.

91. G. subfastigiata (Trin.) Griseb., 1852 = Poa subfastigiata Trin.

92. G. subspicata Regel, 1880 = Xanthochloa karatavica (Bunge) Tzvel. comb, nov. = Poa karatavica Bunge, 1852, Beitr. Kenntn. Fl. Russl. seors. impr.: 525; id. 1854, Mem. Sav. Etr. Petersb. 7 : 525).

After the exclusion of Schedonorus P. Beauv. and Drymochloa Holub from genus Festuca L. s. l. there is no reason to leave Festuca subgen. Xanthochloa (Krivot.) Tzvel. (1971, the Bot. J. 56, 9 : 1253) in Festuca . I therefore propose that it be recognized as a genus:

Xanthochloa (Krivot.) Tzvel. comb, et stat. nov. = Festuca sect. Xanthochloa Krivot., 1960, the Bot. ??? . ???? . ?? the USSR, 20 : 64). Type: X. karatavica (Bunge) Tzvel.

Included species: X. griffithiana (St.-Ives) Tzvel. comb, nov. = Festuca subspicata var. griffithiana St.-Ives, 1926-1929, Candollea, 3 : 423). This Afghan I species is similar to S. karatavica .

93. G. taurica Steud., 1854 = Eremopoa ? persica (Trin.) Roshev.

94. G. tenella Lange, 1882 = Puccinellia tenella (Lange) Holmb.

95. G. tenuiflora (Griseb.) Steud., 1854 = Puccinellia tenuiflora (Griseb.) Scribn. et Merr.

96. G. tenuifolia Boiss. et Reut., 1852 = Puccinellia stenophylla Kerguelen.

97. G. tenuifolia (C. Presl) Steud., 1854 = Puccinellia presli'i (Hack.) Ponert.

98. G. tenuispica Steud., 1854 = Puccinellia stricta (Hook, f.) WITH. ?. Blom.

99. G. thomsonii Stapf., 1897 = Puccinellia thomsonii (Stapf) Stew.

100. G. vaginata Lange, 1858 =P. vaginata (Lange) Fern, et Weath.

101. G. vahliana (Liebm.) T. Fries, 1869 = Puccinellia vahliana (Liebm.) Scribn. et Merr.

102. G vilfoidea T. Fries, 1869 = Puccinellia phryganodes (Trin.) Scribn. et Merr.

103. G. viridis Honda, 1929 = Torreyochloa viridis (Honda) Church.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by a grant from the Russian Federation for Support of Leading Scientific Schools ( ?? - 2198.2003.4).